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In my footnotes and bibliography I occasionally have special author names that should not be printed with the usual pattern (Last name, First name).

For example: Athanasius Alexandrinus needs to stay that way because "Alexandrinus" is not his last name but the name of the city in which he was the bishop.

I solved this problem by writing his name as {Athanasius Alexandrinus} in the bibliography. But, now publisher wants me to add small caps to the last names. When I do that this type of special names are also produced in small caps, although they are not last names.

So here is what I get:

enter image description here

Athanasius Alexandrinus in the first footnote needs to stay together but not in small caps.

Here is my MWE:

\documentclass[a4paper,11pt]{scrartcl}
\usepackage[latin1]{inputenc}
\usepackage{csquotes}
\usepackage{blindtext}
\usepackage{filecontents}
\usepackage{hyperref}
\hypersetup{
    colorlinks,
     citecolor=black,
     filecolor=black,
     linkcolor=black,
     urlcolor=black
}
\begin{filecontents}{\jobname.bib} 
@incollection{athanasius1857,
        Address = {Parisiis},
        Author = {{Athanasius Alexandrinus}},
        Booktitle = {Patrologiae cursus completus: Series Graeca},
        Editor = {Jacques Paul Migne},
        Pages = {37-40},
        Publisher = {Accurante J.-P. Migne},
        Shortauthor = {Ath.},
        Shorttitle = {ep. Marcell.},
        Title = {Epistula ad Marcellinum de interpretatione psalmorum},
        Volume = {27},
        Year = {1857}}
@article{stead1997,
    Author = {Christopher Stead},
    Journal = {Studia Patristica},
    Keywords = {secondary},
    Pages = {39-52},
    Title = {Was Arius a Neoplatonist?},
    Volume = {32},
    Year = {1997}}
\end{filecontents}
\usepackage[ngerman]{babel}

\usepackage[style=historische-zeitschrift, maxnames=2, hyperref=true, backref=true, backrefstyle=none, backend=bibtex,idemtracker=true]{biblatex}
\renewcommand*{\mkbibnamegiven}[1]{\normalfont{#1}}% NO ITALIC IN FIRST NAMES
\renewcommand*{\mkbibnamefamily}[1]{\textsc{#1}}% SMALL CAPS IN LAST NAMES
\renewcommand*{\mkbibnameprefix}[1]{\textsc{#1}}% SMALL CAPS IN LAST NAMES
\renewcommand*{\mkbibnamesuffix}[1]{\textsc{#1}}% SMALL CAPS IN LAST NAMES
\DeclareNameAlias{upshape}{given-family}% SMALL CAPS IN LAST NAMES
\AtBeginBibliography{%
\renewcommand*{\labelnamepunct}{\addcolon\space}
\renewcommand*{\multinamedelim}{\addsemicolon\space}
\renewcommand*{\finalnamedelim}{\multinamedelim}
\DeclareNameAlias{sortname}{family-given}
\DeclareNameAlias{default}{family-given}
}
\setlength\bibitemsep{0.46\itemsep}
\bibliography{\jobname}
%
\makeatletter%
\renewbibmacro*{chapter+pages}{%
  \printfield{chapter}%
  \newunit}%
\renewenvironment{thebibliography}%
     {\renewbibmacro*{chapter+pages}{%
  \printfield{chapter}%
  \setunit*{\addcomma\space}%
  \printfield{pages}%
  \newunit}}%
\makeatother%
%
\begin{document}
\blindtext\footcite[See][S. 56]{athanasius1857}
\blindtext\footcite[See][S. 22]{stead1997}
\blindtext\footcite[See][S. 56]{athanasius1857}
\printbibliography

\end{document}
3

You need a way to tell biblatex not to output a name in small caps in these cases. The "best" solution is to use data annotations, see §3.6 Data Annotations of the biblatex documentation and PLK's answer to Make specific author bold using biblatex, Overloading Author+an / highlighting more than one author.

A very, very similar question is BibLaTeX: prevent caps for some authors.

Simply tell biblatex not to use small caps with the annotation nosc. You will need to set the annotation for both author and shortauthor

@incollection{athanasius1857,
  author         = {{Athanasius Alexandrinus}},
  author+an      = {1=nosc}, 
  shortauthor    = {Ath.},
  shortauthor+an = {1=nosc},
  title          = {Epistula ad Marcellinum de interpretatione psalmorum},
  shorttitle     = {ep. Marcell.},
  editor         = {Jacques Paul Migne},
  booktitle      = {Patrologiae cursus completus: Series Graeca},
  pages          = {37-40},
  volume         = {27},
  date           = {1857},
  address        = {Parisiis},
  publisher      = {Accurante J.-P. Migne},
}

then you can use

\renewcommand*{\mkbibnamefamily}[1]{\ifitemannotation{nosc}{#1}{\textsc{#1}}}

This feature needs Biber, BibTeX is not enough.

\documentclass[a4paper,11pt]{scrartcl}
\usepackage[utf8]{inputenc}
\usepackage{csquotes}
\usepackage{blindtext}
\usepackage{filecontents}
\usepackage{hyperref}
\hypersetup{
    colorlinks,
     citecolor=black,
     filecolor=black,
     linkcolor=black,
     urlcolor=black
}
\begin{filecontents}{\jobname.bib} 
@incollection{athanasius1857,
  author         = {{Athanasius Alexandrinus}},
  author+an      = {1=nosc}, 
  shortauthor    = {Ath.},
  shortauthor+an = {1=nosc},
  title          = {Epistula ad Marcellinum de interpretatione psalmorum},
  shorttitle     = {ep. Marcell.},
  editor         = {Jacques Paul Migne},
  booktitle      = {Patrologiae cursus completus: Series Graeca},
  pages          = {37-40},
  volume         = {27},
  date           = {1857},
  address        = {Parisiis},
  publisher      = {Accurante J.-P. Migne},
}
@article{stead1997,
  author   = {Christopher Stead},
  title    = {Was Arius a Neoplatonist?},
  journal  = {Studia Patristica},
  volume   = {32},
  year     = {1997},
  pages    = {39-52},
  keywords = {secondary},
}
\end{filecontents}
\usepackage[ngerman]{babel}

\usepackage[style=historische-zeitschrift, maxnames=2, hyperref=true, backref=true, backrefstyle=none, backend=biber, idemtracker=true]{biblatex}

\renewcommand*{\mkbibnamegiven}[1]{#1}
\renewcommand*{\mkbibnamefamily}[1]{\ifitemannotation{nosc}{#1}{\textsc{#1}}}
\renewcommand*{\mkbibnameprefix}[1]{\textsc{#1}}
\renewcommand*{\mkbibnamesuffix}[1]{\textsc{#1}}
\DeclareNameAlias{upshape}{given-family}

\AtBeginBibliography{%
  \renewcommand*{\labelnamepunct}{\addcolon\space}%
  \renewcommand*{\multinamedelim}{\addsemicolon\space}%
  \renewcommand*{\finalnamedelim}{\multinamedelim}%
  \DeclareNameAlias{sortname}{family-given}%
  \DeclareNameAlias{default}{family-given}%
}

\setlength\bibitemsep{0.46\itemsep}
\addbibresource{\jobname.bib}

\DeclareFieldFormat{postnote}{\mkpageprefix[pagination][\mknormrange]{#1}}

\begin{document}
\blindtext\footcite[See][56]{athanasius1857}
\blindtext\footcite[See][22]{stead1997}
\blindtext\footcite[See][56]{athanasius1857}
\printbibliography
\end{document}

enter image description here

The \renewenvironment{thebibliography}% did nothing, and the \renewbibmacro*{chapter+pages} was too eager for me, so I removed them. I also added \DeclareFieldFormat{postnote}{\mkpageprefix[pagination][\mknormrange]{#1}} so that the "S." does not need to be given in the postnote.

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