Currently, I am writing thesis using latex. But, I encounter some problem regarding biblatex. I would like to do citation and reference. I am trying to build up code as below with \bibliography. But, it doesn;t show anything. In the pdf foramt, it shows question mark like [?].





When I compile biblatex (F11), it seems that it doesn;t generate final reference file. It returns error message like this:

Process started

 INFO - This is Biber 2.9 INFO - Logfile is 'bibibibi.blg' INFO - Reading 
'bibibibi.bcf' WARN - No data sources defined!

Process exited normally

But, when I use the following code it works well.





But, I prefer to use \bibliography rather than\printbibliography , since former one is easy to control using \natbib. Also, I have university format with \bibliography. So, I want to use the first code.

Is there anyone who can tell me why the first code is not working in my desktop and how to fix?

Thank you so much in advance.

  • 3
    You seem to have set up your editor to run Biber for you. That's why the second code example works for you, it needs Biber. Your first example, on the other hand, needs BibTeX to be run. You need to follow the steps of tex.stackexchange.com/q/154751/35864 in reverse: Where the answers there put biber % you need bibtex %.aux
    – moewe
    Apr 3, 2018 at 13:24
  • Thanks you for your comment @moewe. Now, It works well. I have updated biber and change the path at configuration window. Apr 3, 2018 at 15:52

1 Answer 1


Since you want to use traditional BibTeX you need to tell your editor to run BibTeX for you. At the moment your editor is set up to use Biber, that's why the second example works - it needs Biber. You need to follow the steps of Biblatex with Biber: Configuring my editor to avoid undefined citations in reverse: Where the answers have put biber % or similar you need bibtex %.

  • Thanks alot. I omitted .aux (but still works well!) Even though it works well now, I am quite confused. The first code is using biber isn't it? But, why I need to change the path to bibtex%.aux instead of biber? Apr 3, 2018 at 16:15
  • @AimanPeterKim There are two 'bibliography backend programmes': Biber and BibTeX. For biblatex you need to run Biber, for natbib and .bst styles you need to run BibTeX. You need to tell your editor which backend you would like to use. Apparently your editor was set up to use Biber, but you needed BibTeX for your first example.
    – moewe
    Apr 3, 2018 at 16:19
  • 1
    @AimanPeterKim No. The first code with \usepackage{natbib} needs BibTeX. The second code with \usepackage[backend=biber,...]{biblatex} needs Biber.
    – moewe
    Apr 3, 2018 at 16:21
  • Now I got it. [Biber] and [bibTex] require different set up at the editor configuration. Anyway, Once I stick to one method(bibtex), I don't need to set up again. Are there major difference between each other to set up bibliography? Apr 3, 2018 at 16:28
  • @AimanPeterKim biblatex (normally uses Biber) and traditional BibTeX are completely different in their implementation: tex.stackexchange.com/q/25701/35864. They do similar things, but the details and implementation differ. In general biblatex is said to have more features and to be easier to customise but BibTeX is more stable, faster and accepted by most publishers.
    – moewe
    Apr 3, 2018 at 16:32

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