In the following document, I use the elsarticle class and its elsarticle-num reference style. There are some minor but important issues in the output result:

  1. The first reference which is a website has two major problems.

    • The url address appears in a new line rather than being in the continuation of the first line.
    • Second, its font format differs from the others.
  2. In the 3rd reference, the year does not appear in the output.

  3. In the 4th reference, although I have written "PI" with capital letters in bib1.bib file but it appears as "pi" with lowercase words.




Here goes some literature review from e.g. 



  title={Springer handbook of robotics},
  author={Siciliano, Bruno and Khatib, Oussama},

  author = {An expert},
  title = {LaTeX experts},
  url = {https://tex.stackexchange.com/},

  title={Nonlinear systems, 3rd},
  author={Khalil, Hassan K},
  journal={New Jewsey, Prentice Hall},

  title={Position control of induction and DC servomotors: a novel adaptive fuzzy PI sliding mode control},
  author={Shahnazi, Reza and Shanechi, Hasan Modir and Pariz, Naser},
  journal={IEEE Transactions on Energy Conversion},
  • Unfortunately, I do not know how to attach my bib1.bib in the question. I can't find any option to include it in my question. Apr 29, 2018 at 8:06
  • You can just copy and paste the contents of your .bib file to your question. But please only include the entries that are relevant for your question and not all of your 234 entries.
    – moewe
    Apr 29, 2018 at 8:09
  • 2
    Re issue 3): Write fuzzy {PI} sliding (and also and {DC} servomotors), see tex.stackexchange.com/q/10772/35864. You need to protect words that must not be written in lower case from the case changing function.
    – moewe
    Apr 29, 2018 at 8:15
  • 2
    Re issue 2): khalil2002nonlinear is not an @article it looks more like a @book to me.
    – moewe
    Apr 29, 2018 at 8:20
  • 1
    Re issue 1b): You could try \usepackage{url}\urlstyle{same} but if you are submitting your manuscript to a publisher, you probably should not meddle with their design decisions. If the class typesets URL in monospace, then that happens because the publisher wants it that way. The same holds for issue 1a. You would have to modify the .bst file to change that.
    – moewe
    Apr 29, 2018 at 8:26


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