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I'm currently writing a project work for university, and naturally I have to do some research which I in turn have to quote later on. To do so, I'm using the biblatex package with the biber backend.

Now, in previous works I only used @book, @article and @online, since that's all I referenced, but this time I might be using other sources. Looking at biblatex-examples.bib, there clearly are other options available.

Which resource type to use will be fairly obvious for each source, I suppose, but I can't seem to find a comprehensible not-300-pages-long (though still complete) list of
a) available options (like @book, ...) and
b) which parameters (e.g. author=, title=) are available for the different options.

Hence my question - does anyone here know where to find such an overview or has the knowledge to provide one? Anything that might help is appreciated :)

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You don't need to read the full 300-odd pages of the biblatex documentation, the six pages 8 to 13 (§2.1 Entry Types>§2.1.1 Regular Types) should be enough for a first impression.

That section of the biblatex manual lists all regular entry types and the fields each type supports. Most field names are self-explanatory, but you can look up the exact meanings of those fields in §2.2 Entry Fields>§2.2.2 Data Fields (pp. 16-25) and for more involved stuff §2.2.3 Special Fields, pp. 26-30. Section 2.3 Usage Notes has some useful hints about the subtleties of some fields.

biblatex-examples.bib, which you already mentioned is a very good resource to get to know the types and fields by example.

The Wikibook has a page about bibliography management (https://en.wikibooks.org/wiki/LaTeX/Bibliography_Management) and its biblatex section has a large table listing many entry types and fields.

Some of the resources listed in biblatex in a nutshell (for beginners) also have primers or longer sections about the data model of biblatex. Paul Stanley's biblatex introduction discusses the most common types on pp. 22-30. Knut Hegna and Dag Langmyhr's biblatex guide has two tables with common types and fields along with a short explanation. French speakers may want to consult chapter 10 of Maïeul Rouquette's (Xe)LaTeX Appliqué aux sciences humaines, pp. 79-91. Most introductions don't want to flood their readers with all types, because not all of them are as regularly used as the big five @article, @book, @incollection, @inproceedings, @online.

All of this applies to the default data model as used by the standard biblatex styles. The default data model is the base for the data model of most (all?) contributed biblatex styles as well, but those may very well define additional entry types and fields or otherwise modify the default data model. In that case you will want to read the documentation of the contributed style as well.

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