34

How can I make an integral symbol with a bar above it or a bar below it?

1
  • 3
    Mathematical FYI: Technically they are lower and upper Darboux integrals. The Riemann integral is defined using tagged partitions instead. Of course the two definitions are equivalent as per the sketch of a proof given in the first Wikipedia article.
    – kahen
    Feb 12, 2012 at 6:08

4 Answers 4

18

From what I've seen online, it suffices to use \overline and \underline.

Here is a minimal example that defines

\upRiemannint{<lo>}{<hi>}

which draws the "upper Riemann integral" over the range [<lo>,<hi>]. Analogously,

\loRiemannint{<lo>}{<hi>}

defines the "lower Riemann integral" over the range [<lo>,<hi>].

enter image description here

\documentclass{article}
\newcommand{\upRiemannint}[2]{
  \overline{\int_{#1}^{#2}}
}
\newcommand{\loRiemannint}[2]{
  \underline{\int_{#1}^{#2}}
}
\begin{document}
\[
  \loRiemannint{a}{b} f(x)\,\mathrm{d}x \qquad \textrm{or} \qquad \upRiemannint{a}{b} f(x)\,\mathrm{d}x
\]
\end{document}

These integrals also translate to use in text mode, but vertical alignment is slightly off due to the integral sign by default.

3
  • 3
    Sorry for this negative comment but the output of your code just doesn't look right to my mathematical eye. Leo Liu got the right output. I wonder if the his code could be simplified? Feb 13, 2012 at 1:54
  • 1
    @PredragPunosevac: I agree. I found this source and went from there...
    – Werner
    Feb 13, 2012 at 15:22
  • @PredragPunosevac yes, it may look bad, but that's how it is expressed in lots of books. Mar 7, 2013 at 16:31
40

Personally I use shorter bars. It makes the macro much more complex:

\documentclass{article}
\usepackage{amsmath}
\def\upint{\mathchoice%
    {\mkern13mu\overline{\vphantom{\intop}\mkern7mu}\mkern-20mu}%
    {\mkern7mu\overline{\vphantom{\intop}\mkern7mu}\mkern-14mu}%
    {\mkern7mu\overline{\vphantom{\intop}\mkern7mu}\mkern-14mu}%
    {\mkern7mu\overline{\vphantom{\intop}\mkern7mu}\mkern-14mu}%
  \int}
\def\lowint{\mkern3mu\underline{\vphantom{\intop}\mkern7mu}\mkern-10mu\int}
\begin{document}
\begin{gather*}
   \upint_a^b f(x)\,\mathrm{d}x \\
   \lowint_a^b f(x)\,\mathrm{d}x
\end{gather*}
\end{document}

<code>\upint</code> and <code>\lowint</code>


I'm not sure which is better. Some new Unicode math fonts (XITS Math and Asana Math) have \lowint and \upint, and you can use unicode-math package to load the fonts. They also use wide bars.

enter image description here (from unimath-symbols doc)

1
  • Do we need \mathchoice for \lowint too? Apr 8, 2018 at 17:42
5

If you want complete control over the placement of the bars, you can try the following code for the lower integral:

\lefteqn{\int_a^b f(x)}\lefteqn{\hspace{0.0ex}\rule[-2.25ex]{1.1ex}{.05ex}}
\phantom{\int_a^b f(x)}\mathrm{d}x

And for the upper integral:

\lefteqn{\int_a^b f(x)}\lefteqn{\hspace{1.2ex}\rule[ 3.35ex]{1.1ex}{.05ex}}
\phantom{\int_a^b f(x)}\mathrm{d}x

The hspace argument controls left/right positioning. The three rule arguments respectively control height, length and thickness of the bar.

enter image description here

2
  • 1
    What package (or otherwise) provides \lefteqn?
    – Werner
    Feb 20, 2017 at 17:11
  • 1
    @Werner It's in the kernel.
    – egreg
    Feb 20, 2017 at 17:13
2

Another non UTF option is to use \upint and \lowint commands available in stix-package. Read section 2.2 of the documentation that comes with it, particularly compatibility with AMS packages.

2

You must log in to answer this question.

Not the answer you're looking for? Browse other questions tagged .