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Laboratory reflectance spectra of differentiated meteorites can be used
to identify indicate the rock-forming materials of asteroids at small
scales \cite{Gaffey} and \cite{Trigo-Rodríguez1}.
Over the years, more information such as physico-chemical
properties of asteroids and their reflective behavior were obtained
by much sensitive and precise spectrometers \cite{Dotto} and  \cite{Trigo-Rodríguez2}. \\


! Missing \endcsname inserted.
<to be read again>
l.120 ...cite{Gaffey} and \cite{Trigo-Rodríguez1}
  • 1
    Welcome to TeX.SX! Please help us (and also you) and add a minimal working example (MWE), that illustrates your problem. Reproducing the problem and finding out what the issue is will be much easier when we see compilable code, starting with \documentclass and ending with \end{document}.
    – Bobyandbob
    Oct 25, 2018 at 11:02
  • \usepackage{graphicx} \usepackage{hyperref} \usepackage{movie15} \usepackage{cite}
    – Yasamin
    Oct 25, 2018 at 11:54
  • At the moment my best guess is that the non-ASCII char í in \cite{Trigo-Rodríguez1} is problematic. Entry keys are mean to be internal names and must be reasonably safe. With a non-Unicode engine í is not reasonably safe. Change the key of Trigo-Rodríguez1 to Trigo-Rodriguez1 (with i instead of í) in both the .bib and .tex file and compile again.
    – moewe
    Oct 25, 2018 at 11:54
  • 1
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    – Mensch
    Feb 15, 2019 at 22:04

1 Answer 1


The citation/entry keys in your .bib file should not contain non-ASCII chars such as í if you use a non-Unicode engine. The reason for that is that the keys are used as internal identifiers and so LaTeX must be able to handle them without them breaking easily.

Change Trigo-Rodríguez1 and Trigo-Rodríguez2 to




repectively, i.e. replace the í with i in the key in both your .bib and .tex file.

Related: What characters are allowed to use as delimiters for BibTeX keys? and linked questions.

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