In the good old days, Babel used to provide the list of languages loaded:

LaTeX2e <2011/06/27>
Babel <v3.8m> and hyphenation patterns for american, french, loaded.

After upgrading to TeXLive 2016, I got this:

LaTeX2e <2016/03/31> patch level 2
Babel <3.9r> and hyphenation patterns for 53 language(s) loaded.

Now (2018) I get:

This is pdfTeX, Version 3.14159265-2.6-1.40.19 (TeX Live 2018) (preloaded     format=pdflatex 2018.11.10)  10 NOV 2018 13:26
entering extended mode
 \write18 enabled.
 %&-line parsing enabled.
LaTeX2e <2018-04-01> patch level 5

(no mention of babel), and further down:

) (/usr/local/texlive/2018/texmf-dist/tex/generic/babel/babel.sty
Package: babel 2018/10/16 3.26 The Babel package
File: switch.def 2018/10/16 3.26 Babel switching mechanism
0   francais    frhyph.tex  

and I see only one language loaded, namely French, with language ID 0, even though I have called babel by saying


Is that ID=0 language loaded in the format? If yes, how can I load more languages in the format? In the good old days there was a language.dat file to do that, but it doesn't seem to be used anymore, or is it?

My document has French hyphenation everywhere although it is in English, how can I systematically have both patterns, the English one at \language0 and the French one at \language1 ?

  • The mechanism for loading patterns hasn't changed, and language.dat is still there. (Well, for some time lualatex was based on a different mechanism, now it relies on the old good language.dat.) In my system, the languages are correctly loaded, so I perhaps latex is reading a wrong language.dat. – Javier Bezos Nov 10 '18 at 13:29
  • How do I know which language.dat is read? When I do a kpsewhich language.dat, I get one which has many languages, not just french. And how do I create the pdflatex format? When I write pdfetex --ini latex.ltx I get an error message "LaTeX requires e-TeX" – yannis Nov 10 '18 at 13:49
  • Run fmtutil-sys to recreate the formats. tug.org/texlive/doc/fmtutil.html – Ulrike Fischer Nov 10 '18 at 14:07
  • I think what happened was that tlmgr created format files with the wrong language.dat file, so I had to create them again as this: pdfetex --ini -etex -output-format=pdf "*latex.ltx"; mv latex.fmt /usr/local/texlive/newest/texmf-var/web2c/pdftex/pdflatex.fmt – yannis Nov 10 '18 at 14:08

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