# remove spacing from a definition

I am trying to remove the excessive space between a definition.

\documentclass[11pt, a4paper]{article}
\usepackage{eurosym}
%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
\usepackage{amsmath}
\usepackage{amsfonts}
\usepackage{bm}
\usepackage{amsfonts, graphicx, verbatim, amsmath,amssymb}
\usepackage{color}
\usepackage{lipsum}
\usepackage{array}
\usepackage{setspace}

\setcounter{MaxMatrixCols}{10}
%TCIDATA{OutputFilter=Latex.dll}
%TCIDATA{Version=5.50.0.2953}
%TCIDATA{<META NAME="SaveForMode" CONTENT="1">}
%TCIDATA{BibliographyScheme=Manual}
%TCIDATA{LastRevised=Sunday, November 26, 2017 16:01:29}
%TCIDATA{<META NAME="GraphicsSave" CONTENT="32">}

\setlength{\textheight}{22cm}\setlength{\textwidth}{16cm}
\setlength{\topmargin}{-1.5cm}
\setlength{\oddsidemargin}{-0.5cm}\setlength{\evensidemargin}{-0.5cm}
\providecommand{\U}[1]{\protect\rule{.1in}{.1in}}
\setlength{\textheight}{24cm}\setlength{\textwidth}{16.5cm}
\setlength{\topmargin}{-1.5cm}
\setlength{\oddsidemargin}{0.5cm}\setlength{\evensidemargin}{0.5cm}
\newtheorem{theorem}{Theorem}[section]
\newtheorem{acknowledgement}[theorem]{Acknowledgement}
\newtheorem{algorithm}[theorem]{Algorithm}
\newtheorem{axiom}[theorem]{Axiom}
\newtheorem{case}[theorem]{Case}
\newtheorem{claim}[theorem]{Claim}
\newtheorem{Theorem}[theorem]{Theorem}
\newtheorem{conclusion}[theorem]{Conclusion}
\newtheorem{condition}[theorem]{Condition}
\newtheorem{conjecture}[theorem]{Conjecture}
\newtheorem{corollary}[theorem]{Corollary}
\newtheorem{corol}[theorem]{Corollary}
\newtheorem{Fact}[theorem]{Fact}
\newtheorem{Corollary}[theorem]{Corollary}
\newtheorem{criterion}[theorem]{Criterion}
\newtheorem{definition}[theorem]{Definition}
\newtheorem{Definition}[theorem]{Definition}
\newtheorem{example}[theorem]{Example}
\newtheorem{exercise}[theorem]{Exercise}
\newtheorem{lemma}[theorem]{Lemma}
\newtheorem{Lemma}[theorem]{Lemma}
\newtheorem{fact}[theorem]{Fact}
\newtheorem{lma}[theorem]{Lemma}
\newtheorem{notation}[theorem]{Notation}
\newtheorem{problem}[theorem]{Problem}
\newtheorem{proposition}[theorem]{Proposition}
\newtheorem{prop}[theorem]{Proposition}
\newtheorem{Property}[theorem]{Property}
\newtheorem{property}[theorem]{Property}
\newtheorem{remark}[theorem]{Remark}
\newtheorem{Comment}[theorem]{Comment}
\newtheorem{solution}[theorem]{Solution}
\newtheorem{summary}[theorem]{Summary}
\newenvironment{proof}[1][Proof]{\textbf{#1.} }{\ \rule{0.5em}{0.5em}}
\newcommand{\ve}{\varepsilon}
\newcommand{\cvgpr}{\xrightarrow{\text{\upshape\tiny P}}}
\newcommand{\cvgdist}{\xrightarrow{\mathrm{d}}}
\newcommand{\G}{{\mathcal{G}}}
\newcommand{\Kx}{{\cal K}}
\newcommand{\tod}{\to^{\cal D}}
\newcommand{\ls}{\limsup_{n\to\infty}}
\newcommand{\rE}{\mathbb{E}}
\newcommand{\A}{{\mathcal{A}}}
\newcommand{\rP}{\mathbb{P}}
\newcommand{\p}{{\mathbb{P}}}
\newcommand{\Z}{{\mathbb{Z}}}
\newcommand{\Be}{{\rm Be}}
\newcommand{\re}{\mathrm{e}}
\newcommand{\ep}{\varepsilon}
\newcommand{\Bin}{{\rm Bin}}
\newcommand{\Nn}{{\bf N}}
\newcommand{\St}{\underline{\rm S}}
\newcommand{\Rt}{\underline{\rm R}}
\newcommand{\It}{\underline{\rm I}}
\newcommand{\one}{{\bf 1}}
\newcommand{\Ups}{{\Upsilon}}
\newcommand{\iu}{{i\mkern1mu}}
\newcommand{\II}{{\mathcal{I}}}
\newcommand{\Var}{{\rm Var}}
\newcommand{\var}{{\rm Var}}
\newcommand{\Cov}{{\rm cov}}
\newcommand{\cov}{{\rm cov}}
\newcommand{\corr}{{\rm corr}}
\newcommand{\lhs}{{\rm lhs}}
\newcommand{\rhs}{{\rm rhs}}
\newcommand{\ra}{\rightarrow}
\newcommand{\I}{{\mathbf 1}}
\newcommand{\R}{{\mathbb R}}
\newcommand{\N}{{\mathbb N}}
\newcommand{\LL}{{\mathbb L}}
\newcommand{\E}{{\mathbb{E}}}
\newcommand{\bin}{{\rm Bin}}
\newcommand{\Pois}{{\rm Pois}}
\newcommand{\Po}{{\rm Pois}}
\newcommand{\Bi}{{\cal B}}
\newcommand{\ri}{\mathrm{i}}
\newcommand{\rd}{\mathrm{d}}
\newcommand{\XXi}{\Xi_{k,m}^{(n)}}
\newcommand{\xxi}{\bar{\xi}}
\newcommand{\qedhere}{{\diamond}}
\newcommand{\eqdef}{\stackrel{\mathrm{def}}{=}}
\newcommand{\eqdist}{\stackrel{\mathrm{D}}{=}}
\newcommand{\braket}[2]{{\langle{#1|#2}\rangle}}
\newcommand{\independent}{\perp}
\newcommand{\bb}{\begin{eqnarray*}}
\newcommand{\ee}{\end{eqnarray*}}
\newcommand{\bbb}{\begin{eqnarray}}
\newcommand{\eee}{\end{eqnarray}}
\newcommand{\F}{{\mathcal{F}}}
\newcommand{\qed}{$\diamond$}
\parindent 0pt
\setlength{\parindent}{0pt}
%\newcommand{\forceindent}{\leavevmode{\parindent=3em\indent

\begin{document}
\section{Introduction}
We shall go over some basic knowledge hence we begin by giving some definitions.
\begin{definition}
A group is a set $G$ together with a binary operation $*$ on $G$ satisfying
the following properties:\\
\doublespacing{(G1) Closure:     $\forall x,y \in G, x * y \in G.$\\
(G2) Associativity:  $\forall x,y, z \in G, (x * y) * z = x * (y * z).$\\
(G3) Identity:   There is an element $e \in G$ such that $e * x = x * e = x$ for all $x \in G.$\\
(G4) Inverses:   For any $x \in G$ there is an element $y \in G$ such that $x * y = y * x = e.$\\}
\end{definition}
\end{document}


now I wish to remove the 'extra' space where it says "properties" by moving it one line up and keeping the rest the same

EDIT: I wish to add the following:

\begin{definition}
A group $G$ is called an abelian group if the following axiom is satisfied:\\

(G5) Commutativity: $\forall x,y \in G, x * y = y * x.$
\end{definition}

• I'm not sure what you want, but replace \\ with an empty line. – Sigur Dec 7 '18 at 15:03
• Unfortunately your document does not compile. Maybe first fix this error before worrying about how things look like? – user36296 Dec 7 '18 at 15:04
• @samcarter, because the line 122: \forceindent – Sigur Dec 7 '18 at 15:04
• that is precisely what I wanted @Sigur. thanks – Maths Dec 7 '18 at 15:06
• @A.E, welcome. Observe my comment on line 122. – Sigur Dec 7 '18 at 15:07

You should first get rid of most code in the preamble and define only the commands and structures that you really need.

By the way, commands such as \rm and \cal have been deprecated for twenty years.

Don't use \\ for ending paragraphs in standard text. A wider spacing for the items in the definition is better obtained by using enumerate rather than \doublespacing (which is not a command taking an argument).

\documentclass[11pt, a4paper]{article}
\usepackage{amsmath,amsthm,enumitem}

\newtheorem{theorem}{Theorem}[section]

\theoremstyle{definition}
\newtheorem{definition}[theorem]{Definition}

\begin{document}

\section{Introduction}

We shall go over some basic knowledge hence we begin by giving some definitions.

\begin{definition}
A group is a set $G$ together with a binary operation $*$ on $G$ satisfying
the following properties:
\begin{enumerate}[label=(G\arabic*)]
\item Closure: $\forall x,y \in G, x * y \in G$.
\item Associativity: $\forall x,y, z \in G, (x * y) * z = x * (y * z)$.
\item Identity: There is an element $e \in G$ such that $e * x = x * e = x$ for all $x \in G$.
\item Inverses: For any $x \in G$ there is an element $y \in G$ such that $x * y = y * x = e$.
\end{enumerate}
\end{definition}

\end{document}


The enumitem package has several features, for instance series and resume:

\documentclass[11pt, a4paper]{article}
\usepackage{amsmath,amsthm,enumitem}

\newtheorem{theorem}{Theorem}[section]

\theoremstyle{definition}
\newtheorem{definition}[theorem]{Definition}

\begin{document}

\section{Introduction}

We shall go over some basic knowledge hence we begin by giving some definitions.

\begin{definition}
A group is a set $G$ together with a binary operation $*$ on $G$ satisfying
the following properties:
\begin{enumerate}[label=(G\arabic*),series=group]
\item Closure: $\forall x,y \in G, x * y \in G$.
\item Associativity: $\forall x,y, z \in G, (x * y) * z = x * (y * z)$.
\item Identity: There is an element $e \in G$ such that $e * x = x * e = x$ for all $x \in G$.
\item Inverses: For any $x \in G$ there is an element $y \in G$ such that $x * y = y * x = e$.
\end{enumerate}
\end{definition}

\begin{definition}
A group $G$ is called an abelian group if the following axiom is satisfied:
\begin{enumerate}[label=(G\arabic*),resume=group]
\item Commutativity: $\forall x,y \in G, x * y = y * x$.
\end{enumerate}
\end{definition}

\end{document}


• this is better however I am getting errors when I input this code instead of my existing one – Maths Dec 7 '18 at 15:39
• @A.E Have you added \usepackage{enumitem}? – egreg Dec 7 '18 at 15:41
• I did, I made a typo, its working now, cheers. – Maths Dec 7 '18 at 15:44
• please look at my edited code, I wish to add the extra part for abelian groups, but I want the 'G5' to be consistent with the "G's" you have used – Maths Dec 7 '18 at 16:17
• @A.E Added the example – egreg Dec 7 '18 at 16:50