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I need help with drawing a 2D square lattice made of springs and balls (see the picture) on a convex surface, such as spherical one. Could you please let me know is there a possibility of making this in PSTricks or TikZ? Thanks a lot.

I have linked [1] a related example in PDF with a grid on a spherical surface.

latticeSprings

[1] http://www.texample.net/media/tikz/examples/PDF/spherical-and-cartesian-grids.pdf

  • 1
    Welcome to TeX.SX. Questions about how to draw specific graphics that just post an image of the desired result are really not reasonable questions to ask on the site. Please post a minimal compilable document showing that you've tried to produce the image and then people will be happy to help you with any specific problems you may have. See minimal working example (MWE) for what needs to go into such a document. – Stefan Pinnow Dec 17 '18 at 10:49
  • Thank you @Stefan Pinnow. I'll follow your suggestion and I will write a new question tagging this one. – Savchenko Dec 17 '18 at 23:24
8

Welcome to TeX.SE! Here is a proposal.

\documentclass[tikz,border=3.14mm]{standalone}
\usetikzlibrary{decorations.pathmorphing}
\begin{document}
\begin{tikzpicture}
\clip (-1,-1) rectangle (11,11);
\foreach \X in {-2,0,...,10}
{\foreach \Y in {-2,0,...,10}
 {\draw[decorate,decoration={coil,aspect=0.5,amplitude=1.5mm, segment
length=1.5mm}] (\X,\Y) -- ++(0,2) -- ++(2,0);
\node[circle,text=white,font=\sffamily\bfseries\large,inner
color=blue,outer color=black] at (\X,\Y) {+};}}
\end{tikzpicture}
\end{document}

enter image description here

It is straightforward to embed this into a spherical coordinate system. (Big thanks to @caverac for pointing out what the question really is.)

\documentclass[tikz,border=3.14mm]{standalone}
\usepackage{tikz-3dplot}
\usetikzlibrary{decorations.pathmorphing,calc}
\makeatletter
%from https://tex.stackexchange.com/a/375604/121799
%along x axis
\define@key{x sphericalkeys}{radius}{\def\myradius{#1}}
\define@key{x sphericalkeys}{theta}{\def\mytheta{#1}}
\define@key{x sphericalkeys}{phi}{\def\myphi{#1}}
\tikzdeclarecoordinatesystem{x spherical}{% %%%rotation around x
    \setkeys{x sphericalkeys}{#1}%
    \pgfpointxyz{\myradius*cos(\mytheta)}{\myradius*sin(\mytheta)*cos(\myphi)}{\myradius*sin(\mytheta)*sin(\myphi)}}

%along y axis
\define@key{y sphericalkeys}{radius}{\def\myradius{#1}}
\define@key{y sphericalkeys}{theta}{\def\mytheta{#1}}
\define@key{y sphericalkeys}{phi}{\def\myphi{#1}}
\tikzdeclarecoordinatesystem{y spherical}{% %%%rotation around x
    \setkeys{y sphericalkeys}{#1}%
    \pgfpointxyz{\myradius*sin(\mytheta)*cos(\myphi)}{\myradius*cos(\mytheta)}{\myradius*sin(\mytheta)*sin(\myphi)}}

%along z axis
\define@key{z sphericalkeys}{radius}{\def\myradius{#1}}
\define@key{z sphericalkeys}{theta}{\def\mytheta{#1}}
\define@key{z sphericalkeys}{phi}{\def\myphi{#1}}
\tikzdeclarecoordinatesystem{z spherical}{% %%%rotation around x
    \setkeys{z sphericalkeys}{#1}%
    \pgfpointxyz{\myradius*sin(\mytheta)*cos(\myphi)}{\myradius*sin(\mytheta)*sin(\myphi)}{\myradius*cos(\mytheta)}}


\makeatother % https://tex.stackexchange.com/a/438695/121799

\begin{document}
\tdplotsetmaincoords{70}{130}
\begin{tikzpicture}[tdplot_main_coords]
\pgfmathsetmacro{\R}{16}
    \path[clip]
    plot[variable=\x,domain=2.5:52.5]
     (z spherical cs:radius=\R,theta=80-2.5,phi=\x)
     -- plot[variable=\x,domain=2.5:52.5]
     (z spherical cs:radius=\R,theta=80-\x,phi=52.5)
     -- plot[variable=\x,domain=52.5:2.5]
     (z spherical cs:radius=\R,theta=80-52.5,phi=\x)
     -- plot[variable=\x,domain=52.5:2.5]
     (z spherical cs:radius=\R,theta=80-\x,phi=2.5);
    \foreach \X in {0,5,...,55}
     {\draw[decorate,decoration={coil,aspect=0.5,amplitude=1.5mm, segment
length=1.5mm}] plot[variable=\x,domain=0:55]
     (z spherical cs:radius=\R,theta=80-\X,phi=\x);
     \draw[decorate,decoration={coil,aspect=0.5,amplitude=1.5mm, segment
length=1.5mm}] plot[variable=\x,domain=0:55]
     (z spherical cs:radius=\R,theta=80-\x,phi=\X);
     }
    \foreach \X in {5,10,...,50}
    {\foreach \Y in {5,10,...,50}
     {\path let \p1=($(z spherical cs:radius=\R,theta=80-\X+1,phi=\Y)-(z
     spherical cs:radius=\R,theta=80-\X,phi=\Y)$),
     \p2=($(z spherical cs:radius=\R,theta=80-\X,phi=\Y+1)-(z
     spherical cs:radius=\R,theta=80-\X,phi=\Y)$),
     \n1={veclen(\x1,\y1)/12},\n2={veclen(\x2,\y2)/12},\n3={sqrt(\n1*\n2)}
     in %\pgfextra{\typeout{\X,\Y:\n1,\n2}}
     node[scale=\n3,transform shape,circle,text=white,font=\sffamily\bfseries\large,inner
color=blue,outer color=black] at (z spherical cs:radius=\R,theta=80-\X,phi=\Y) {+};}}
\end{tikzpicture}
\end{document}

enter image description here

As for your additional request: yes, it is possible. However, things depend on what you really want to achieve in the end. Here I present some example that heavily relies on Fritz's stellar answer. However, when trying to polish it by drawing things on different layers, I encountered unexpected problems. In any case, I have no idea what your real aim is. (See e.g. this great post for additional possibilities.) I would kindly like to ask you to make additional requests in form of a new question, which list all the requirements. Asking questions is free, after all. I leave you with

\documentclass[border=3.14mm,tikz]{standalone}
\usepackage{pgfplots}
\usepackage{xxcolor}
\pgfplotsset{compat=1.16}
\usetikzlibrary{decorations.pathmorphing,decorations.markings}
% Declare nice sphere shading: http://tex.stackexchange.com/a/54239/12440
\pgfdeclareradialshading[tikz@ball]{ball}{\pgfqpoint{0bp}{0bp}}{%
 color(0bp)=(tikz@ball!0!white);
 color(7bp)=(tikz@ball!0!white);
 color(15bp)=(tikz@ball!70!black);
 color(20bp)=(black!70);
 color(30bp)=(black!70)}
\makeatother

% Style to set TikZ camera angle, like PGFPlots `view`
\tikzset{viewport/.style 2 args={
    x={({cos(-#1)*1cm},{sin(-#1)*sin(#2)*1cm})},
    y={({-sin(-#1)*1cm},{cos(-#1)*sin(#2)*1cm})},
    z={(0,{cos(#2)*1cm})}
}}

% Styles to plot only points that are before or behind the sphere.
\pgfplotsset{only foreground/.style={
    restrict expr to domain={rawx*\CameraX + rawy*\CameraY + rawz*\CameraZ}{-0.05:100},
}}
\pgfplotsset{only background/.style={
    restrict expr to domain={rawx*\CameraX + rawy*\CameraY + rawz*\CameraZ}{-100:0.05}
}}

% Automatically plot transparent lines in background and solid lines in foreground
\def\addFGBGplot[#1]#2;{
    \addplot3[#1,only background, opacity=0.25] #2;
    \addplot3[#1,only foreground] #2;
}

% attempt to do similar things for discrete plots
\def\addFGBGSampleplot[#1]#2;{
    %\addplot3[#1,only background,gray!50] #2;
    \addplot3[#1,only foreground] #2;
}


\newcommand{\ViewAzimuth}{-30}
\newcommand{\ViewElevation}{30}

\tikzset{spring/.style={decorate,decoration={coil,aspect=0.5,amplitude=1.5mm, segment
length=1.5mm}}}
% pgfmanual p. 1087
\pgfdeclareradialshading{ballshading}{\pgfpoint{-10bp}{10bp}}
 {color(0bp)=(cyan!15!white); color(9bp)=(cyan!75!white);
 color(18bp)=(cyan!70!black); color(25bp)=(cyan!50!black); color(50bp)=(black)}

\pgfdeclareplotmark{crystal ball}{\pgfpathcircle{\pgfpoint{0ex}{0ex}}{2ex}
  \pgfshadepath{ballshading}{0}
  \pgfusepath{}}
\begin{document}
\begin{tikzpicture}
    % Compute camera unit vector for calculating depth
    \pgfmathsetmacro{\CameraX}{sin(\ViewAzimuth)*cos(\ViewElevation)}
    \pgfmathsetmacro{\CameraY}{-cos(\ViewAzimuth)*cos(\ViewElevation)}
    \pgfmathsetmacro{\CameraZ}{sin(\ViewElevation)}
    \pgfmathsetmacro{\R}{12}
    \path[use as bounding box] (-\R,-\R) rectangle (\R,\R); % Avoid jittering animation
    % Draw a nice looking sphere
    \begin{scope}
        \clip (0,0) circle (\R);
        \begin{scope}[transform canvas={rotate=-20}]
            \shade [ball color=white] (0,0.5) ellipse (\R*1.8 and \R*1.5);
        \end{scope}
    \end{scope}
    \begin{axis}[
        hide axis,
        view={\ViewAzimuth}{\ViewElevation},     % Set view angle
        every axis plot/.style={very thin},
        disabledatascaling,                      % Align PGFPlots coordinates with TikZ
        anchor=origin,                           % Align PGFPlots coordinates with TikZ
        viewport={\ViewAzimuth}{\ViewElevation}, % Align PGFPlots coordinates with TikZ
    ]
        % plot latitude circles
        \pgfplotsinvokeforeach{-75,-45,...,75}
        {\addFGBGplot[spring,domain=0:2*pi, samples=51, samples y=1]
        ({\R*cos(#1)*cos(deg(x))}, {\R*cos(#1)*sin(deg(x))}, {\R*sin(#1)});}
        % plot longitude circles
        \pgfplotsinvokeforeach{0,30,...,150}
        {\addFGBGplot[spring,domain=0:2*pi, samples=51, samples y=1]
        ({\R*cos(#1)*cos(deg(x))}, {\R*sin(#1)*cos(deg(x))}, {\R*sin(deg(x))});     
        }
        % plot longitude circles
        \pgfplotsinvokeforeach{0,30,...,330}
        {\addFGBGSampleplot[only marks,mark=crystal ball,samples at={-75,-45,...,75}]
        ({\R*cos(#1)*cos(x)}, {\R*sin(#1)*cos(x)}, {\R*sin(x)});        
        }
    \end{axis}
\end{tikzpicture}
\end{document}

enter image description here

  • 1
    I do not believe this solves the problem, OP wanted to draw this on a "(...) convex surface, such as spherical one." – caverac Dec 17 '18 at 12:08
  • 1
    @caverac Better now? – user121799 Dec 17 '18 at 12:53
  • 1
    Outstanding as always (+1) – caverac Dec 17 '18 at 13:01
  • 1
    Wow, that was unexpectedly quick - I am impressed. Thank you greatly for the help with this matter. I am not that much familiar with tikz-plots (rather with pstricks), but I shall certainly have to be after this. Is there any possibility to have the lattice spanned across the entire sphere coloured in grey? Many many thanks to @marmot and caverac too. – Savchenko Dec 17 '18 at 15:49
  • 1
    This answer should be one of the requirements of PhD in TikZ – Diaa Dec 17 '18 at 20:26

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