2
\documentclass{standalone}
\usepackage{tikz}
\usetikzlibrary{intersections}
\begin{document}
\begin{tikzpicture}[
    plotmark/.style = {%
    solid, fill = red, circle, inner sep = 0pt, minimum size = 6pt
  }
]
    \coordinate (A) at (0,0);
    \coordinate (B) at (1,1);
    \coordinate (C) at (3,1);
    \coordinate (D) at (4,0);

    \draw[->] (A)--(B);
    \draw[->] (D)--(C);
    \draw[dashed] (A) circle [radius=2];

    \coordinate (I) at (intersection cs:first line={(A)--(B)}, second line={(C)--(D)});

    \node[plotmark, label={below:$A$}] at (A) {};
    \node[plotmark, label={below:$D$}] at (D) {};
    \node[plotmark, label={above:$I$}] at (I) {};
\end{tikzpicture}
\end{document}

In the above code, even though the line segments (A)--(B) and (D)--(C) do not meet, \coordinate (I) at (intersection cs:first line={(A)--(B)}, second line={(C)--(D)}); calculates the intersection point, and outputs:

enter image description here

Is there a way to use the intersection cs syntax to locate the intersection of the path AB with the circle?

The following syntax requires that the line segment and the circle actually meet:

\path[name path=Circle] (A) circle [radius=2];
\path[name path=AB] (A)--(B);
\path [name intersections={of=Circle and AB}];
\coordinate (I) at (intersection-1);
  • 1
    Nice question! I do not believe that there is a way using `intersection cs: as is. Would you also be interested in a style that computes the intersections of the extension of an arbitrary line with a circle? – user121799 Dec 21 '18 at 6:07
  • @marmot I am open to all suggestions. – blackened Dec 21 '18 at 6:10
2

This answer comes with two styles intersection 1 of line and intersection 2 of line, which can be used e.g. like this:

\coordinate[intersection 1 of line={from A to B with circle around A with
    radius 2cm}] (aux1);

As the syntax suggests, this will find one intersection of the line that runs through A and B with the circle of radius 2cm around A. Of course, the circle does not have to be around a point that the line runs through, as the following illustrates. This updated version uses xfp to avoid `dimension too large errors. (I wish I had tried this earlier. ;-)

\documentclass{standalone}
\usepackage{xfp}
\usepackage{tikz}
% smuggling from https://tex.stackexchange.com/a/470979/121799
\newcounter{smuggle}
\DeclareRobustCommand\smuggleone[1]{%
  \stepcounter{smuggle}%
  \expandafter\global\expandafter\let\csname smuggle@\arabic{smuggle}\endcsname#1%
  \aftergroup\let\aftergroup#1\expandafter\aftergroup\csname smuggle@\arabic{smuggle}\endcsname
}
\DeclareRobustCommand\smuggle[2][1]{%
  \smuggleone{#2}%
  \ifnum#1>1
    \aftergroup\smuggle\aftergroup[\expandafter\aftergroup\the\numexpr#1-1\aftergroup]\aftergroup#2%
  \fi
}

\usetikzlibrary{intersections,calc}
\begin{document}
\tikzset{intersection warning/.code={\pgfmathtruncatemacro{\mysign}{sign(#1)+1}
\ifcase\mysign
\typeout{The\space line\space and\space circle\space do\space not\space
intersect.\space The\space intersections\space returned\space are\space fake.}
\or
\typeout{The\space line\space and\space circle\space intersect\space
only\space once.}
\or
\fi},
fpeval/.code n args={2}{\edef#1{\fpeval{#2}}%\typeout{#1}%
\smuggle[2]{#1}},
intersection 1 of line/.style args={from #1 to #2 with circle around #3 with radius #4}{%
insert path={let \p1=(#1),\p2=(#2),\p3=(#3)
in [fpeval={\mydisc}{{-((\y1/10)*(\x2/10) - (\x1/10)*(\y2/10) - (\y1/10)*(\x3/10) + (\y2/10)*(\x3/10) + (\x1/10)*(\y3/10) - (\x2/10)*(\y3/10))^2 + 
(((\x1/10) - (\x2/10))^2 + ((\y1/10) - (\y2/10))^2)*(#4/10)^2}},
fpeval={\myfactor}{((\x1/10)^2 + (\y1/10)^2 + (\x2/10)*(\x3/10) - (\x1/10)*((\x2/10) + (\x3/10)) + (\y2/10)*(\y3/10) - 
     (\y1/10)*((\y2/10) + (\y3/10)) - 
     sqrt(abs(\mydisc)))/
    (((\x1/10) - (\x2/10))^2 + ((\y1/10) - (\y2/10))^2)},
intersection warning=\mydisc]($(#1)+\myfactor*($(#2)-(#1)$)$)}  },
intersection 2 of line/.style args={from #1 to #2 with circle around #3 with radius #4}{%
insert path={let \p1=(#1),\p2=(#2),\p3=(#3)
in [fpeval={\mydisc}{-((\y1/10)*(\x2/10) - (\x1/10)*(\y2/10) - (\y1/10)*(\x3/10) + (\y2/10)*(\x3/10) + (\x1/10)*(\y3/10) - (\x2/10)*(\y3/10))^2 + 
(((\x1/10) - (\x2/10))^2 + ((\y1/10) - (\y2/10))^2)*(#4/10)^2},
fpeval={\myfactor}{((\x1/10)^2 + (\y1/10)^2 + (\x2/10)*(\x3/10) - (\x1/10)*((\x2/10) + (\x3/10)) + (\y2/10)*(\y3/10) - 
(\y1/10)*((\y2/10) + (\y3/10)) +  sqrt(abs(\mydisc)))/
(((\x1/10) - (\x2/10))^2 + ((\y1/10) - (\y2/10))^2)}]
[intersection warning=\mydisc] ($(#1)+\myfactor*($(#2)-(#1)$)$)}  }
}

\begin{tikzpicture}[
    plotmark/.style = {%
    solid, fill = red, circle, inner sep = 0pt, minimum size = 6pt
  }
]
    \coordinate (A) at (0,0);
    \coordinate (B) at (1,1);
    \coordinate (C) at (3,1);
    \coordinate (D) at (4,0);
    \coordinate (E) at (1,0);
    \coordinate (F) at (2,-1);
    \coordinate (G) at (2,1);
    \coordinate (H) at (3,1);

    \draw[->] (A)--(B);
    \draw[->] (D)--(C);
    \draw[dashed] (A) circle [radius=2];

    \coordinate (I) at (intersection cs:first line={(A)--(B)}, second line={(C)--(D)});

    \node[plotmark, label={below:$A$}] at (A) {};
    \node[plotmark, label={below:$D$}] at (D) {};
    \node[plotmark, label={below:$E$}] at (E) {};
    \node[plotmark, label={above:$I$}] at (I) {};
    \coordinate[intersection 1 of line={from A to B with circle around A with
    radius 2cm}] (aux1);
    \typeout{aux2}
    \coordinate[intersection 2 of line={from A to B with circle around A with
    radius 2cm}] (aux2);
    \node[plotmark, label={below:$I_1$}] at (aux1) {};
    \node[plotmark, label={below:$I_2$}] at (aux2) {};
    \coordinate[intersection 1 of line={from E to B with circle around A with
    radius 2cm}] (aux3);
    \coordinate[intersection 2 of line={from E to B with circle around A with
    radius 2cm}] (aux4);
    \node[plotmark, label={below:$I_1'$}] at (aux3) {};
    \node[plotmark, label={below:$I_2'$}] at (aux4) {};
    \coordinate[intersection 1 of line={from F to G with circle around A with
    radius 2cm}] (aux5);
    \coordinate[intersection 1 of line={from F to H with circle around A with
    radius 2cm}] (aux6);
\end{tikzpicture}
\end{document}

enter image description here

Warnings are issued if there is no intersection and the user gets told if the line and the circle only intersect once. The advantage of the analytic computation is that the determination of the intersections does not alter the bounding box.

ADDENDUM: Not tested very well because I feel you should write a new question.

\documentclass{article}
\usepackage{xfp}
% smuggling from https://tex.stackexchange.com/a/470979/121799
\newcounter{smuggle}
\DeclareRobustCommand\smuggleone[1]{%
  \stepcounter{smuggle}%
  \expandafter\global\expandafter\let\csname smuggle@\arabic{smuggle}\endcsname#1%
  \aftergroup\let\aftergroup#1\expandafter\aftergroup\csname smuggle@\arabic{smuggle}\endcsname
}
\DeclareRobustCommand\smuggle[2][1]{%
  \smuggleone{#2}%
  \ifnum#1>1
    \aftergroup\smuggle\aftergroup[\expandafter\aftergroup\the\numexpr#1-1\aftergroup]\aftergroup#2%
  \fi
}
\usepackage{tikz}
\usetikzlibrary{intersections,calc,through}
\tikzset{intersection warning/.code={\pgfmathtruncatemacro{\mysign}{sign(#1)+1}
\ifcase\mysign
\typeout{The\space line\space and\space circle\space do\space not\space
intersect.\space The\space intersections\space returned\space are\space fake.}
\or
\typeout{The\space line\space and\space circle\space intersect\space
only\space once.}
\or
\fi},
fpeval/.code n args={2}{\edef#1{\fpeval{#2}}%\typeout{#1}%
\smuggle[2]{#1}},
intersection 1 of line/.style args={from #1 to #2 with circle around #3 with radius #4}{%
insert path={let \p1=(#1),\p2=(#2),\p3=(#3)
in [fpeval={\mydisc}{-((\y1/10)*(\x2/10) - (\x1/10)*(\y2/10) - (\y1/10)*(\x3/10) + (\y2/10)*(\x3/10) + (\x1/10)*(\y3/10) - (\x2/10)*(\y3/10))^2 + 
       (((\x1/10) - (\x2/10))^2 + ((\y1/10) - (\y2/10))^2)*(#4/10)^2},
fpeval={\myfactor}{((\x1/10)^2 + (\y1/10)^2 + (\x2/10)*(\x3/10) - (\x1/10)*((\x2/10) + (\x3/10)) + (\y2/10)*(\y3/10) - 
     (\y1/10)*((\y2/10) + (\y3/10)) - 
     sqrt(abs(\mydisc)))/
    (((\x1/10) - (\x2/10))^2 + ((\y1/10) - (\y2/10))^2)}]
[intersection warning=\mydisc] ($(#1)+\myfactor*($(#2)-(#1)$)$)}  },
intersection 2 of line/.style args={from #1 to #2 with circle around #3 with radius #4}{%
insert path={let \p1=(#1),\p2=(#2),\p3=(#3)
in [fpeval={\mydisc}{-((\y1/10)*(\x2/10) - (\x1/10)*(\y2/10) - (\y1/10)*(\x3/10) + (\y2/10)*(\x3/10) + (\x1/10)*(\y3/10) - (\x2/10)*(\y3/10))^2 + 
       (((\x1/10) - (\x2/10))^2 + ((\y1/10) - (\y2/10))^2)*(#4/10)^2},
fpeval={\myfactor}{((\x1/10)^2 + (\y1/10)^2 + (\x2/10)*(\x3/10) - (\x1/10)*((\x2/10) + (\x3/10)) + (\y2/10)*(\y3/10) - 
     (\y1/10)*((\y2/10) + (\y3/10)) + 
     sqrt(abs(\mydisc)))/
    (((\x1/10) - (\x2/10))^2 + ((\y1/10) - (\y2/10))^2)}]
 [intersection warning=\mydisc] ($(#1)+\myfactor*($(#2)-(#1)$)$)}  },
circle through 3 points/.style n args={3}{%
insert path={let    \p1=($(#1)!0.5!(#2)$),
                    \p2=($(#1)!0.5!(#3)$),
                    \p3=($(#1)!0.5!(#2)!1!-90:(#2)$),
                    \p4=($(#1)!0.5!(#3)!1!90:(#3)$),
                    \p5=(intersection of \p1--\p3 and \p2--\p4)
                    in },
at={(\p5)},
circle through= {(#1)}
},
circle radius/.style args={#1 of circle at #2 through #3}{
insert path={let \p1=($(#2)-(#3)$),\n1={veclen(\x1,\y1)} 
in \pgfextra{\xdef#1{\n1}}}}
}

\begin{document}
\section*{Intersection of circle with line}

\begin{tikzpicture}
    \coordinate (A) at (0,0);
    \coordinate (B) at (1,1);
    \coordinate (C) at (3,1);
    \coordinate (D) at (4,0);
    \coordinate (E) at (1,0);
    \coordinate (F) at (2,-1);
    \coordinate (G) at (2,1);
    \draw (A) circle[radius=2cm];
    \foreach \X in {A,B,...,G}
    {\fill[blue] (\X) circle (2pt) node[above]{\X};}
%
    \coordinate[intersection 1 of line={from A to B with circle around A with
    radius 2cm}] (aux1);
    \coordinate[intersection 2 of line={from A to B with circle around A with
    radius 2cm}] (aux2);
    \coordinate[intersection 1 of line={from E to B with circle around A with
    radius 2cm}] (aux3);
    \coordinate[intersection 2 of line={from E to B with circle around A with
    radius 2cm}] (aux4);
    \coordinate[intersection 1 of line={from F to G with circle around A with
    radius 2cm}] (aux5);
    \foreach \X in {1,...,5}
    {\fill[red] (aux\X) circle (2pt) node[below]{\X};}
\end{tikzpicture}

\section*{Define the circle by center and point on it}

\begin{tikzpicture}
    \coordinate (A) at (0,0);
    \coordinate (B) at (1,1);
    \coordinate (C) at (3,1);
    \coordinate (D) at (4,0);
    \coordinate (E) at (1,0);
    \coordinate (F) at (2,-1);
    \coordinate (G) at (2,1);
    \path[circle radius={\myradius} of circle at A through G];
    \draw (A) circle[radius=\myradius];
    \foreach \X in {A,B,...,G}
    {\fill[blue] (\X) circle (2pt) node[above]{\X};}
%
    \coordinate[intersection 1 of line={from A to B with circle around A with
    radius \myradius}] (aux1);
    \coordinate[intersection 2 of line={from A to B with circle around A with
    radius \myradius}] (aux2);
    \coordinate[intersection 1 of line={from E to B with circle around A with
    radius \myradius}] (aux3);
    \coordinate[intersection 2 of line={from E to B with circle around A with
    radius \myradius}] (aux4);
    \coordinate[intersection 1 of line={from F to G with circle around A with
    radius \myradius}] (aux5);
    \foreach \X in {1,...,5}
    {\fill[red] (aux\X) circle (2pt) node[below]{\X};}
\end{tikzpicture}

\section*{Define the circle by 3 points}

\begin{tikzpicture}
    \coordinate (A) at (0,0);
    \coordinate (B) at (1,1);
    \coordinate (C) at (3,1);
    \coordinate (D) at (4,0);
    \coordinate (E) at (1,0);
    \coordinate (F) at (2,-1);
    \coordinate (G) at (2,1);
    \node[circle through 3 points={A}{F}{D},draw] (CN){};
    \path[circle radius={\myradius} of circle at CN.center through D];
    \draw[red,dashed] (CN.center) circle[radius=\myradius];
    \foreach \X in {A,B,...,G}
    {\fill[blue] (\X) circle (2pt) node[above]{\X};}
%
    \coordinate[intersection 1 of line={from E to C with circle around CN.center with
    radius \myradius}] (aux1);
    \foreach \X in {1}
    {\fill[red] (aux\X) circle (2pt) node[below]{\X};}
\end{tikzpicture}

\end{document}

enter image description here

ADDENDUM II: What can one do when dimension too large errors occur? The infamous dimension too large errors can occur with any coordinate computations, so they can occur here. One way to partly avoid them is to work with the fpu library. (Note, however, that you may have to switch off fpu (locally) if you work with the math library, say.) This alone does not (necessarily) fix the issue, but after rewriting the computations in such a way that a characteristic scale auxmax gets identified and all dimensions divided by it seems to work.

\documentclass{standalone}
\usepackage{tikz}
\usetikzlibrary{intersections,calc}
\usetikzlibrary{fpu}
\begin{document}
\tikzset{declare
function={auxmax(\x,\y,\u,\v,\r,\s,\z)=sqrt(\x^2+\y^2+\u^2+\v^2+\r^2+\s^2+\z^2);
auxone(\x,\y,\u,\v,\r,\s,\z)=
-((\y/auxmax(\x,\y,\u,\v,\r,\s,\z))*(\u/auxmax(\x,\y,\u,\v,\r,\s,\z)) - (\x/auxmax(\x,\y,\u,\v,\r,\s,\z))*(\v/auxmax(\x,\y,\u,\v,\r,\s,\z)) - (\y/auxmax(\x,\y,\u,\v,\r,\s,\z))*(\r/auxmax(\x,\y,\u,\v,\r,\s,\z)) + (\v/auxmax(\x,\y,\u,\v,\r,\s,\z))*(\r/auxmax(\x,\y,\u,\v,\r,\s,\z)) + (\x/auxmax(\x,\y,\u,\v,\r,\s,\z))*(\s/auxmax(\x,\y,\u,\v,\r,\s,\z)) - (\u/auxmax(\x,\y,\u,\v,\r,\s,\z))*(\s/auxmax(\x,\y,\u,\v,\r,\s,\z)))^2 + 
       (((\x/auxmax(\x,\y,\u,\v,\r,\s,\z)) - (\u/auxmax(\x,\y,\u,\v,\r,\s,\z)))^2 + ((\y/auxmax(\x,\y,\u,\v,\r,\s,\z)) - (\v/auxmax(\x,\y,\u,\v,\r,\s,\z)))^2)*(\z/auxmax(\x,\y,\u,\v,\r,\s,\z))^2;
auxtwo(\x,\y,\u,\v,\r,\s,\z)=
((\x/auxmax(\x,\y,\u,\v,\r,\s,\z))^2 + (\y/auxmax(\x,\y,\u,\v,\r,\s,\z))^2 + (\u/auxmax(\x,\y,\u,\v,\r,\s,\z))*(\r/auxmax(\x,\y,\u,\v,\r,\s,\z)) - (\x/auxmax(\x,\y,\u,\v,\r,\s,\z))*((\u/auxmax(\x,\y,\u,\v,\r,\s,\z)) + (\r/auxmax(\x,\y,\u,\v,\r,\s,\z))) + (\v/auxmax(\x,\y,\u,\v,\r,\s,\z))*(\s/auxmax(\x,\y,\u,\v,\r,\s,\z)) - 
     (\y/auxmax(\x,\y,\u,\v,\r,\s,\z))*((\v/auxmax(\x,\y,\u,\v,\r,\s,\z)) + (\s/auxmax(\x,\y,\u,\v,\r,\s,\z))) - 
     sqrt(abs(\n1)))/
    (((\x/auxmax(\x,\y,\u,\v,\r,\s,\z)) - (\u/auxmax(\x,\y,\u,\v,\r,\s,\z)))^2 + ((\y/auxmax(\x,\y,\u,\v,\r,\s,\z)) - (\v/auxmax(\x,\y,\u,\v,\r,\s,\z)))^2);       
auxthree(\x,\y,\u,\v,\r,\s,\z)=-((\y/auxmax(\x,\y,\u,\v,\r,\s,\z))*(\u/auxmax(\x,\y,\u,\v,\r,\s,\z)) - (\x/auxmax(\x,\y,\u,\v,\r,\s,\z))*(\v/auxmax(\x,\y,\u,\v,\r,\s,\z)) - (\y/auxmax(\x,\y,\u,\v,\r,\s,\z))*(\r/auxmax(\x,\y,\u,\v,\r,\s,\z)) + (\v/auxmax(\x,\y,\u,\v,\r,\s,\z))*(\r/auxmax(\x,\y,\u,\v,\r,\s,\z)) + (\x/auxmax(\x,\y,\u,\v,\r,\s,\z))*(\s/auxmax(\x,\y,\u,\v,\r,\s,\z)) - (\u/auxmax(\x,\y,\u,\v,\r,\s,\z))*(\s/auxmax(\x,\y,\u,\v,\r,\s,\z)))^2 + 
       (((\x/auxmax(\x,\y,\u,\v,\r,\s,\z)) - (\u/auxmax(\x,\y,\u,\v,\r,\s,\z)))^2 + ((\y/auxmax(\x,\y,\u,\v,\r,\s,\z)) - (\v/auxmax(\x,\y,\u,\v,\r,\s,\z)))^2)*(\z/auxmax(\x,\y,\u,\v,\r,\s,\z))^2;
auxfour(\x,\y,\u,\v,\r,\s,\z)=((\x/auxmax(\x,\y,\u,\v,\r,\s,\z))^2 + (\y/auxmax(\x,\y,\u,\v,\r,\s,\z))^2 + (\u/auxmax(\x,\y,\u,\v,\r,\s,\z))*(\r/auxmax(\x,\y,\u,\v,\r,\s,\z)) - (\x/auxmax(\x,\y,\u,\v,\r,\s,\z))*((\u/auxmax(\x,\y,\u,\v,\r,\s,\z)) + (\r/auxmax(\x,\y,\u,\v,\r,\s,\z))) + (\v/auxmax(\x,\y,\u,\v,\r,\s,\z))*(\s/auxmax(\x,\y,\u,\v,\r,\s,\z)) - 
     (\y/auxmax(\x,\y,\u,\v,\r,\s,\z))*((\v/auxmax(\x,\y,\u,\v,\r,\s,\z)) + (\s/auxmax(\x,\y,\u,\v,\r,\s,\z))) + 
     sqrt(abs(\n1))/
    (((\x/auxmax(\x,\y,\u,\v,\r,\s,\z)) - (\u/auxmax(\x,\y,\u,\v,\r,\s,\z)))^2 + ((\y/auxmax(\x,\y,\u,\v,\r,\s,\z)) - (\v/auxmax(\x,\y,\u,\v,\r,\s,\z)))^2);
}}
\tikzset{intersection warning/.code={\pgfmathtruncatemacro{\mysign}{sign(#1)+1}
\ifcase\mysign
\typeout{The\space line\space and\space circle\space do\space not\space
intersect.\space The\space intersections\space returned\space are\space fake.}
\or
\typeout{The\space line\space and\space circle\space intersect\space
only\space once.}
\or
\fi},
intersection 1 of line/.style args={from #1 to #2 with circle around #3 with radius #4}{%
insert path={let \p1=(#1),\p2=(#2),\p3=(#3),
\n1={auxone(\x1,\y1,\x2,\y2,\x3,\y3,#4)},
\n2={auxtwo(\x1,\y1,\x2,\y2,\x3,\y3,#4)}
in [intersection warning=\n1]($(#1)+\n2*($(#2)-(#1)$)$)}  },
intersection 2 of line/.style args={from #1 to #2 with circle around #3 with radius #4}{%
insert path={let \p1=(#1),\p2=(#2),\p3=(#3),
\n1={auxthree(\x1,\y1,\x2,\y2,\x3,\y3,#4)},
\n2={auxfour(\x1,\y1,\x2,\y2,\x3,\y3,#4)}
in [intersection warning=\n1] ($(#1)+\n2*($(#2)-(#1)$)$)}  }
}

\begin{tikzpicture}[/pgf/fpu=true,/pgf/fpu/output format=fixed]
    \pgfmathsetmacro{\myConstant}{5*sqrt(2)} 
    \coordinate (A) at (0,0); 
    \coordinate (B) at (0, \myConstant); 
    \coordinate (C) at (10, \myConstant); 
    \coordinate (D) at (10,0); 
    \coordinate (midBC) at (5, \myConstant); 
    \coordinate (midAD) at (5, 0); 
    \coordinate[intersection 1 of line={from midBC to A with circle around midAD with radius 5cm}] (aux1);
    \foreach \X in {A,B,C,D,midBC,midAD,aux1}   
    {\fill (\X) circle(1pt) node[above]{\X};}
\end{tikzpicture}
\end{document}

enter image description here

  • @blackened There are several users on this site who can answer such questions. (Apart from my real work I am also busy these days to rewrite the pgfmanual in such a way that for each example it is clear which library is to be used. So I am really busy....) BTW, there might be a numerical issue with the second intersection, I plan to look at it when I am back from cycling... ;-) – user121799 Jan 27 at 16:08
  • 1
    @blackened I added a possible way to deal with the error. At least in your last example it is gone. – user121799 Feb 5 at 1:06
  • How do I write algebraic expressions like sqrt(5) in circle radius. I tried sqrt(5)cm, sqrt{5}cm, {sqrt{5}}cm, none of them worked. – blackened Apr 18 at 16:08
  • 1
    @blackened \draw circle[radius={sqrt(5)*1cm}]; – user121799 Apr 18 at 16:12
3

There also exists the command \tkzInterLC from the tkz-euclide package that calculates the intersection points between a line and a circle even if they don't meet:

\documentclass{standalone}
\usepackage{tikz,tkz-euclide}
\usetikzlibrary{intersections}
\begin{document}
\begin{tikzpicture}[
    plotmark/.style = {%
    solid, fill = red, circle, inner sep = 0pt, minimum size = 6pt
  }
]
    \coordinate (A) at (0,0);
    \coordinate (B) at (1,1);
    \coordinate (C) at (3,1);
    \coordinate (D) at (4,0);

    \draw[->] (A)--(B);
    \draw[->] (D)--(C);
    \draw[dashed] (A) circle [radius=2];

    \coordinate (I) at (intersection cs:first line={(A)--(B)}, second line={(C)--(D)});

    \node[plotmark, label={below:$A$}] at (A) {};
    \node[plotmark, label={below:$B$}] at (B) {};
    \node[plotmark, label={below:$D$}] at (D) {};
    \node[plotmark, label={above:$I$}] at (I) {};

    \tkzInterLC[R](A,B)(A,2cm) % line (A,B) and circle(A,2cm) 
     \tkzGetPoints{E}{F} % intersection points
    \node[plotmark, label={below:$E$}] at (E) {};
    \node[plotmark, label={below:$F$}] at (F) {};
\end{tikzpicture}
\end{document}

enter image description here

1

with combination of intersection cs:first line={...}, second line={...} and name intersections={of=<name path 1> and <name path 2>,...:

\documentclass[tikz, margin=3mm]{standalone}
\usetikzlibrary{intersections}

\begin{document}
\begin{tikzpicture}[
    plotmark/.style = {%
    solid, fill = red, circle, inner sep = 0pt, minimum size = 6pt
  }
]
\coordinate (A) at (0,0);
\coordinate (B) at (1,1);
\coordinate (C) at (3,1);
\coordinate (D) at (4,0);

\draw[->] (A)--(B);
\draw[->] (D)--(C);
\draw[dashed, name path=Circle] (A) circle [radius=2];  % <---

\coordinate (I) at (intersection cs:first line={(A)--(B)}, second line={(C)--(D)});
\path[name path=AI] (A) -- (I);                         % <---
\path[name intersections={of=AI and Circle,by={E}}]     % <---
                node[plotmark, label=$E$] at (E) {};    % <--- 

\node[plotmark, label={below:$A$}] at (A) {};
\node[plotmark, label={below:$D$}] at (D) {};
\node[plotmark, label={above:$I$}] at (I) {};
\end{tikzpicture}
\end{document}

enter image description here

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