# URLs extend past page margins

I'm new to LaTeX and have a desire to learn as I'm completing a PhD and have been told LaTeX is a great platform for writing scientific documents.

So, I have written a short plain English piece in TeXstudio, but have a few problems:

\documentclass[a4paper,10pt]{article}
\usepackage{natbib}
\usepackage{graphicx}
\usepackage{gensymb}
\usepackage{url}
\usepackage{wrapfig}

\bibliographystyle{plainnat}

\begin{document}

\begin{figure}[h!]
\centering
\includegraphics[width=1\textwidth]{withstupid}
\caption{I'm with stupid \citep{adcock2018}}
\end{figure}

{\LARGE Save our planet and our species, now!?} \\

The human species faces the most important crossroads in our history, we have two choices; [1] to continue down our existing path, ignoring the impact our actions are having on the environment or [2] to take immediate action and reduce our carbon dioxide emissions, in an attempt to manage the rate of global warming and save not just the very planet we depend on to survive but also to secure a future for our own species. I believe our species is currently facing an existential risk of our own making. \\

Analysis of air bubbles from ice in the poles has shown that for thousands of years, the $CO_2$ levels in the atmosphere was stable at around 280 PPM, until 1800, when the $CO_2$ concentrations begin to exponentially increase. The start of the industrial revolution circa 1900 marked an unprecedented rate of increase in measured $CO_2$ levels in the atmosphere.\\

We burn fossil fuels to generate electricity, fuel vehicles and power industry. When we burn fossil fuel or biomaterial it produces $CO_2$ among other things. Laboratory analysis allows us to trace the sources of $CO_2$ in the atmosphere and there is no doubt that the increase in $CO_2$ is a result of human activity.\\

Fast forward to 2018 and the current levels of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere are 408PPM and rising every day. These are the highest levels measured in over 800,000 possibly even the last 20 million years.\\

\begin{figure}[h!]
\centering
\includegraphics[width=0.5\textwidth]{co2variation}
\caption{$CO_2$ variation \citep{Wikipedia17122018}}
\end{figure}

$CO_2$ is a greenhouse gas and excess levels of this gas in the atmosphere are increasing the greenhouse effect, trapping more heat in the atmosphere and raising the temperature of the Earth. Increasing global temperatures will cause irreversible damage to the environment and ecosystems around the planet.\\

International recognition of this risk resulted in a landmark agreement between Parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) in Paris on 12th December 2015. It was agreed to combat climate change by maintaining a global temperature rise below 2\degree C above pre-industrial levels and to pursue actions to further limit the global temperature rise to 1.5\degree C. To date: 195 Parties have signed the Agreement, 179 Parties ratified. The Parties include industrialized (developed) countries and developing countries alike. \\

\begin{figure}[h!]
\centering
\includegraphics[width=0.5\textwidth]{parties}
\caption{Countries signed Paris agreement \citep{ratified}}
\end{figure}

To date temperatures have increased by around 1\degree C and we have witnessed significant climate events around the planet – extreme weather events, flooding, fires, coral bleaching, drought and heat waves.
On the 8th October 2018, the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) published a Special Report on Global Warming of 1.5\degree C. This report was called for by the IPCC in December 2015. This report was compiled by the worlds leading scientists comprising 91 authors from 40 countries. This report considers evidence and arguments from over 6,000 scientific sources. \\

\begin{figure}[h!]
\centering
\includegraphics[width=1\textwidth]{riskrisingtemp}
\caption{Risk of rising temperatures \citep{indep2014}}
\end{figure}

The IPCC report states that we could see the 1.5\degree C temperature rise between 12 and 34 years if it continues to increase at the current rate.\\

The report provides several possible pathways to achieve 1.5\degree C, all of which require fossil-fuel use to half in less than 15 years and completely eliminate their use within 30 years. This means no gas, oil, diesel, or coal use in our homes, transport or industry unless the $CO_2$ is captured and stored. We will need to increase bioenergy crop production for energy and additional forestation for natural carbon dioxide absorption. A shift towards renewable energy production and large scale carbon capture and storage will be nessecary. Widespread dietary shifts towards eating less meat and reduced material consumption, would have a significant impact on reducing $CO_2$ emissions. \\

“Without the full involvement and alignment of our technical, social, and political dimensions, 1.5\degree C and even 2\degree C won’t be possible” says Glen Peters, Research Director at Norway’s Center for International Climate Research. \\

Despite the cold hard facts, Donald Trump, ‘has his doubts about climate change’ and thinks that the climate could “change back again”. Trump has also stated that he wishes to withdraw the US from the Paris agreement. \\

\begin{figure}[h!]
\centering
\includegraphics[width=0.5\textwidth]{trumptweet}
\caption{Tweet from Donald Trump \citep{Holden2018}}
\end{figure}

The science and evidence are clear…our species is entering unchartered territory in our existence on planet Earth. I feel we only have one sensible, logical and responsible path to follow at these crossroads – to take immediate action: reduce and eliminate our dependence on fossil fuels, reduce the rate of climate change, engineer a sustainable and renewable future and hopefully save the planet for the future of our species.\\
\\
\\
\\

% IPCC (2018): SR15 Global Warming of 1.5\degree C. Headline Statements from the Summary for Policymakers. Available online at https://www.ipcc.ch/site/assets/uploads/sites/2/2018/07/sr15_headline_statements.pdf, checked on 12/17/2018.\\

National Geographic (2018): Climate change impacts worse than expected, global report warns. National Geographic. Available online at https://www.nationalgeographic.com/environment/2018/10/ipcc-report-climate-change-impacts-forests-emissions/, updated on 12/13/2018, checked on 12/17/2018.\\

unfccc.int (2018): What is the Paris Agreement? Available online at https://unfccc.int/process-and-meetings/the-paris-agreement/what-is-the-paris-agreement, checked on 12/17/2018.\\

Vitousek, Peter M; Mooney, Harold A; Lubchenco, Jane; Melillo, Jerry M (1997): Human Domination of Earths Ecosystems. In Science 277.\\

Wikipedia (2018): Special Report on Global Warming of 1.5\degree C - Wikipedia. Edited by Wikipedia. Available online at https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=874073532, updated on 12/16/2018, checked on 12/17/2018.\\

WWF (2018): The Effects Of Climate Change. Available online at https://www.wwf.org.uk/effectsofclimatechange, updated on 12/17/2018, checked on 12/17/2018.\\

\bibliography{references}

\end{document}


Problem

Webpage URLs go off the page - how do I fix this?

• Welcome to TeX.SX. It is better here to just ask one question per question. Every thing you asked have been asked before and can be answered by simply showing the other answer here on TeX.SX. And i would recommend to read an introduction to LaTeX. Even PhD students have to learn new stuff. – Johannes_B Dec 21 '18 at 7:52
• Welcome to TeX.SX! Please note that the structure and workings of this site require a question to be about one specific issue. The five problems listed in this question are only tangentially related and this otherwise nice question could benefit hugely from being split into different, separate questions. See also tex.meta.stackexchange.com/q/7425/35864 – moewe Dec 21 '18 at 7:52
• Please note that \\ is not the right way to end a paragraph. A blank line is enough to do that. Indeed in normal text (that explicitly excludes display math (align and friends) and tables (tabular and friends)) \\ should ideally not be used at all. – moewe Dec 21 '18 at 7:53
• This question could be marked as duplicate of tex.stackexchange.com/questions/11/… – Johannes_B Dec 21 '18 at 8:15
• URLs should be typeset with the \url macro of the url or hyperref package (hyperref loads url). So write \url{https://www.nationalgeographic.com/environment/2018/10/ipcc-report-climate-change-impacts-forests-emissions/} to obtain a nice URL. See also tex.stackexchange.com/q/3568/35864 (which seems to be a good duplicate of this question.) – moewe Dec 21 '18 at 11:03

Well, in your code you have several issues ...

1. You have not added package graphicx resulting in error messages for used comands \includegraphics. I added the package in the following mwe ...
2. I used images from package mwe, for example example-image, which must be installed but not loaded ...
3. Wrap your used urls with command \url{}, then you can use package url (as you did) or better package xurl for a better line breaking of urls ...
4. because you gave us no bib file I commented the usage of natbib and bibtex in your code ... BTW: I suggest to use bibtex for your bib entries, and please see that you should include urls like this in your bib file:

url={https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=874073532},


then it get printed with using command \url and usage of package url/xurl ...

5. Do not use \\ to end an parapraph, use instead a blank line. If you want a bigger space you can use for example command \vspace{1cm} (change the value for your needs ...).
6. Instead of using \\{Large text}\\ \\ \\ use better the mechanismn for sections or chapters (for class book) ...

Please see the following compiling mwe

\documentclass[a4paper,10pt]{article}

%\usepackage{natbib}
\usepackage{graphicx} % <===============================================
\usepackage{gensymb}
\usepackage{xurl} % <===================================================

%\bibliographystyle{plainnat}

\begin{document}

\begin{figure}[h!]
\centering
\includegraphics[width=1\textwidth]{example-image-duck}
\caption{I'm with stupid}%  \citep{adcock2018}
\end{figure}

{\LARGE Save our planet and our species, now!?} %\\ % never end paragraph with \\, use blank line instead!

The human species faces the most important crossroads in our history, we have two choices; [1] to continue down our existing path, ignoring the impact our actions are having on the environment or [2] to take immediate action and reduce our carbon dioxide emissions, in an attempt to manage the rate of global warming and save not just the very planet we depend on to survive but also to secure a future for our own species. I believe our species is currently facing an existential risk of our own making.

Analysis of air bubbles from ice in the poles has shown that for thousands of years, the $CO_2$ levels in the atmosphere was stable at around 280 PPM, until 1800, when the $CO_2$ concentrations begin to exponentially increase. The start of the industrial revolution circa 1900 marked an unprecedented rate of increase in measured $CO_2$ levels in the atmosphere.

We burn fossil fuels to generate electricity, fuel vehicles and power industry. When we burn fossil fuel or biomaterial it produces $CO_2$ among other things. Laboratory analysis allows us to trace the sources of $CO_2$ in the atmosphere and there is no doubt that the increase in $CO_2$ is a result of human activity.

Fast forward to 2018 and the current levels of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere are 408PPM and rising every day. These are the highest levels measured in over 800,000 possibly even the last 20 million years.

\begin{figure}[h!]
\centering
\includegraphics[width=0.5\textwidth]{example-image-a}
\caption{$CO_2$ variation}%  \citep{Wikipedia17122018}
\end{figure}

$CO_2$ is a greenhouse gas and excess levels of this gas in the atmosphere are increasing the greenhouse effect, trapping more heat in the atmosphere and raising the temperature of the Earth. Increasing global temperatures will cause irreversible damage to the environment and ecosystems around the planet.

International recognition of this risk resulted in a landmark agreement between Parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) in Paris on 12th December 2015. It was agreed to combat climate change by maintaining a global temperature rise below 2\degree C above pre-industrial levels and to pursue actions to further limit the global temperature rise to 1.5\degree C. To date: 195 Parties have signed the Agreement, 179 Parties ratified. The Parties include industrialized (developed) countries and developing countries alike.

\begin{figure}[h!]
\centering
\includegraphics[width=0.5\textwidth]{example-image-b}
\caption{Countries signed Paris agreement}%  \citep{ratified}
\end{figure}

To date temperatures have increased by around 1\degree C and we have witnessed significant climate events around the planet – extreme weather events, flooding, fires, coral bleaching, drought and heat waves.
On the 8th October 2018, the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) published a Special Report on Global Warming of 1.5\degree C. This report was called for by the IPCC in December 2015. This report was compiled by the worlds leading scientists comprising 91 authors from 40 countries. This report considers evidence and arguments from over 6,000 scientific sources.

\begin{figure}[h!]
\centering
\includegraphics[width=1\textwidth]{example-image-c}
\caption{Risk of rising temperatures}%  \citep{indep2014}
\end{figure}

The IPCC report states that we could see the 1.5\degree C temperature rise between 12 and 34 years if it continues to increase at the current rate.

The report provides several possible pathways to achieve 1.5\degree C, all of which require fossil-fuel use to half in less than 15 years and completely eliminate their use within 30 years. This means no gas, oil, diesel, or coal use in our homes, transport or industry unless the $CO_2$ is captured and stored. We will need to increase bioenergy crop production for energy and additional forestation for natural carbon dioxide absorption. A shift towards renewable energy production and large scale carbon capture and storage will be nessecary. Widespread dietary shifts towards eating less meat and reduced material consumption, would have a significant impact on reducing $CO_2$ emissions.

“Without the full involvement and alignment of our technical, social, and political dimensions, 1.5\degree C and even 2\degree C won’t be possible” says Glen Peters, Research Director at Norway’s Center for International Climate Research.

Despite the cold hard facts, Donald Trump, ‘has his doubts about climate change’ and thinks that the climate could “change back again”. Trump has also stated that he wishes to withdraw the US from the Paris agreement.

\begin{figure}[h!]
\centering
\includegraphics[width=0.5\textwidth]{example-image}
\caption{Tweet from Donald Trump}% \citep{Holden2018}
\end{figure}

The science and evidence are clear…our species is entering unchartered territory in our existence on planet Earth. I feel we only have one sensible, logical and responsible path to follow at these crossroads – to take immediate action: reduce and eliminate our dependence on fossil fuels, reduce the rate of climate change, engineer a sustainable and renewable future and hopefully save the planet for the future of our species.

\vspace{2\baselineskip}

% IPCC (2018): SR15 Global Warming of 1.5\degree C. Headline Statements from the Summary for Policymakers. Available online at https://www.ipcc.ch/site/assets/uploads/sites/2/2018/07/sr15_headline_statements.pdf, checked on 12/17/2018.

National Geographic (2018): Climate change impacts worse than expected, global report warns. National Geographic. Available online at \url{https://www.nationalgeographic.com/environment/2018/10/ipcc-report-climate-change-impacts-forests-emissions/}, updated on 12/13/2018, checked on 12/17/2018.

unfccc.int (2018): What is the Paris Agreement? Available online at \url{https://unfccc.int/process-and-meetings/the-paris-agreement/what-is-the-paris-agreement}, checked on 12/17/2018.

Vitousek, Peter M; Mooney, Harold A; Lubchenco, Jane; Melillo, Jerry M (1997): Human Domination of Earths Ecosystems. In Science 277.

Wikipedia (2018): Special Report on Global Warming of 1.5\degree C - Wikipedia. Edited by Wikipedia. Available online at \url{https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=874073532}, updated on 12/16/2018, checked on 12/17/2018.

WWF (2018): The Effects Of Climate Change. Available online at \url{https://www.wwf.org.uk/effectsofclimatechange}, updated on 12/17/2018, checked on 12/17/2018.

%\bibliography{references}

Or better


At last it seems that you are using an bib file because you have used \cite{} in your captions ... Because I do not have your bib file I can not help you with that, but I suggest you ask a new question, showing your bib file for your given code in your question here ... The real bibliography follows your manual written references in code.
Better is using bibtex or biblatex/biber ...