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\documentclass[sort&compress, 5p,draft]{elsarticle}
\usepackage{lineno}
\journal{Journal of \LaTeX\ Templates}
\usepackage{subfig}
\usepackage{pgf,tikz}
\usetikzlibrary{shapes.geometric, arrows}
\usepackage{multirow}
\usepackage{float}
\captionsetup[subfigure]{subrefformat=simple,labelformat=simple,listofformat=subsimple}
\renewcommand\thesubfigure{(\alph{subfigure})}

\begin{document}

%\begin{figure}[]
%\begin{figure*}
\begin{figure}[H]
\centering
\subfloat[1]
{
  \includegraphics[height=2.40 in, width=2.35 in]{1.eps} \label{a}
}
\subfloat[2]
{
  \includegraphics[height=2.40 in, width=2.35 in]{2.eps} \label{b}
}
\subfloat[3]
{
  \includegraphics[height=2.40 in, width=2.35 in]{3.eps} \label{c}
}\\
\subfloat[4]
{
  \includegraphics[height=2.40 in, width=2.35 in]{4.eps} \label{d}
}
\subfloat[5]
{
  \includegraphics[height=2.30 in, width=2.3 in]{5.eps} \label{e}
}
\subfloat[6]
{
  \includegraphics[height=2.30 in, width=2.3 in]{6.eps} \label{f}
}
\caption{Dynamic analysis iteration convergence properties: Approach 1. The energy tolerance is plotted against the time at every BGS iterations.} \label{n-r_energy_tol_error_app1_dyn}
\end{figure}
%\end{figure*}

\section{Dynamic analysis}
In this section, we demonstrate a comprehensive and systematic performances evaluation
of various numerical coupled algorithms based on accuracy and computational efficiency
to study the electric filed and structure interaction. The evaluated linear piezoelectric finite
element algorithms are 1) the monolithic coupling with Newmark’s time integration, 2) block
Jacobi partitioned iterative coupling with Newmark’s time integration, 3) block Gauss-Seidel
partitioned iterative coupling with Newmark’s time integration, 4) non iterative partitioned
coupling with central difference time integration. Using these algorithms, the static, dynamic
step responses and transient dynamic characteristics of piezoelectric bimorph actuator are
predicted accurately. The static and dynamic behaviors of the model from numerical and
analytic results are compared with each other. It is shown from these results that the numerical
analysis using the proposed algorithms takes into account the interaction of the structure-electric
field of the piezoelectric actuator accurately. The performances of the proposed algorithms
have been depicted in the present simulation results. The performances of these finite element
coupled algorithms are evaluated based on the accuracy of the solution and the computational
cost for piezoelectric bimorph actuators without metal shim, bimorph actuators with metal shim
(triple layer actuator), and surface acoustic wave devices. Their transient dynamic responses
are demonstrated together with the static and steady-state responses.

Here we present the numerical results obtained using the proposed finite element coupled
algorithms for piezoelectric bimorph actuator problems. These piezoelectric bimorph actuators
have a very wide area of applications and recently they have are used to actuate the insect-scale
robots [15, 17]. The piezoelectric bimorph actuators consist of a double layer of piezoelectric ceramic joined together over their long surfaces. Usually, a metal shim is attached between the two
piezoelectric ceramic in-order to enhance the reliability and mechanical strength. This type of
the piezoelectric bimorph actuator is called as bimorph actuators with metal shim or triple layer
actuator [22]. The classification of piezoelectric bimorph actuators are depicted in Fig. 2.9.
In general, two types of electrical connections are practically used in the configuration of
the bimorph actuator shown in Fig. 2.10. One is a series connection, where the piezoelectric
layers have opposite polarization directions, and an electric field is applied across the thickness
of the bimorph as shown in Figs. 2.10(a) and 2.10(c). The second type of connection is a
parallel connection, where the two piezoelectric ceramic layers have a polarization in the same
directions, and the electric field is applied across each individual layer with opposite polarity as
shown in Figs. 2.10(b) and 2.10(d). Due to the symmetrical structure, in both the case when an
electric field is applied to the piezoelectric layers, the induced electric forces in the upper half
thickness is canceled by that of the lower half thickness. Hence, for the given configurations in
Fig. 2.10 the upper piezoelectric layer contracts and lower piezoelectric layer expands, resulting
in a pure bending in the upward direction [22, 23]. Length, width and thickness directions of
the bimorph actuator are assigned as X , Y , and Z axes, respectively. Directional parameters of
\end{document}

enter image description here

Dear Members, In this latex code I used \begin{figure}[H] to positioning the figure. It seems that the text and the figure overlap. Also, I tried with \begin{figure*} and they do not overlap each other. However, \begin{figure*} leave blank space after the figure. How can I use the left space after the figure in the same page. Thank you very much.

  • What do you mean by a blank space after the figure*? It just shifts to the next page (automagically) to fit the alignment requirements (as far as I can see). – Raaja Jan 11 at 7:44
  • Exactly, the text shifts to the next page. With the usage of \begin{figure*}[!t] I could fix it. Thank you. – Prakash Jan 11 at 7:47
  • 2
    unrelated but do not do height=2.40 in, width=2.35 in as you will distort the image, just use height or depth, not both. – David Carlisle Jan 11 at 7:58
1

You are forcing three figures in a row then a line break (with \\) then three more figures, but as you are setting the width to 2.35in there is no way they can fit three in a column. you could set them vertically:

\begin{figure}[H]
\centering
\subfloat[1]
{
  \includegraphics[height=2.40 in, width=2.35 in]{1.eps} \label{a}
}

\subfloat[2]
{
  \includegraphics[height=2.40 in, width=2.35 in]{2.eps} \label{b}
}

\subfloat[3]
{
  \includegraphics[height=2.40 in, width=2.35 in]{3.eps} \label{c}
}

\subfloat[4]
{
  \includegraphics[height=2.40 in, width=2.35 in]{4.eps} \label{d}
}

\subfloat[5]
{
  \includegraphics[height=2.30 in, width=2.3 in]{5.eps} \label{e}
}

\subfloat[6]
{
  \includegraphics[height=2.30 in, width=2.3 in]{6.eps} \label{f}
}
\caption{Dynamic analysis iteration convergence properties: Approach 1. The energy tolerance is plotted against the time at every BGS iterations.} \label{n-r_energy_tol_error_app1_dyn}
\end{figure}

but then the total figure is too tall for a page. You need to decide whether to set them vertically but scale them smaller, or set them two or three in a row in a full width figure* rather than figure or what other layout you need.

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