2

The CAPTION package with FONT=FOOTNOTESIZE leaves a wide gap after a caption. Specifically, a caption before TABULAR leaves a wider gap, while that after TABULAR doesn't. Here's an example.

\documentclass{article}
\usepackage[font=footnotesize]{caption}             % The gap disappears without this package
\begin{document}
%--------------------------------------------------
% This table leaves a wide gap after Table 1: TEXT
%--------------------------------------------------
\begin{table}
\caption{TEXT}                                      % The gap right after here
\footnotesize This is a sentence. This is a sentence. This is a sentence. This is a sentence. This is a sentence. This is a sentence. This is a sentence. This is a sentence. This is a sentence. This is a sentence. This is a sentence. This is a sentence. This is a sentence. This is a sentence. \par\centering
\begin{tabular}{lr}\hline
1.0000 & 1.0000 \\\hline
\end{tabular}
\end{table}
%--------------------------------------------------
% This table doesn't leave it after Table 2: TEXT
%--------------------------------------------------
\begin{table}
{\centering\begin{tabular}{lr}\hline
1.0000 & 1.0000 \\\hline
\end{tabular}\par}
\caption{TEXT}                                      % No gap appears here
\footnotesize This is a sentence. This is a sentence. This is a sentence. This is a sentence. This is a sentence. This is a sentence. This is a sentence. This is a sentence. This is a sentence. This is a sentence. This is a sentence. This is a sentence. This is a sentence. This is a sentence.
\end{table}
\end{document}

In this example, only the first table generates the ugly gap. Can one remove the unwanted gap between "Table 1: TEXT" and "This is a sentence. This is a sentence?"

1

The vertical space (gap) between the float content and the caption is controlled
by the skip option provided by the caption package.

So \captionsetup{skip=0pt} will remove the gap.

\documentclass{article}
\usepackage[font=footnotesize]{caption}             % The gap disappears without this package

\captionsetup{skip=0pt} % <-------- add this line

\begin{document}
%--------------------------------------------------
% This table leaves a wide gap after Table 1: TEXT
%--------------------------------------------------
\begin{table}
\caption{TEXT}                                      % The gap right after here
\footnotesize This is a sentence. This is a sentence. This is a sentence. This is a sentence. This is a sentence. This is a sentence. This is a sentence. This is a sentence. This is a sentence. This is a sentence. This is a sentence. This is a sentence. This is a sentence. This is a sentence. \par\centering
\begin{tabular}{lr}\hline
1.0000 & 1.0000 \\\hline
\end{tabular}
\end{table}
%--------------------------------------------------
% This table doesn't leave it after Table 2: TEXT
%--------------------------------------------------
\begin{table}
{\centering\begin{tabular}{lr}\hline
1.0000 & 1.0000 \\\hline
\end{tabular}\par}
\caption{TEXT}                                      % No gap appears here
\footnotesize This is a sentence. This is a sentence. This is a sentence. This is a sentence. This is a sentence. This is a sentence. This is a sentence. This is a sentence. This is a sentence. This is a sentence. This is a sentence. This is a sentence. This is a sentence. This is a sentence.
\end{table}
\end{document}
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