9

I don't know TikZ in depth so I barely can play with it. The following is a transfer characteristic of an inverter gate. I have researched on the Internet to find the function's explicit definition without success.

I am trying to draw the curve, without knowing the definition. Yet there is one requirement: the slope at two points of the curve is −1.

transfer_func

I would be so happy of any help.

  • 1
    You can draw a set of connected curves. With in and out in TikZ, the slope = -1 is easy to achieve. – JouleV Feb 19 at 6:46
  • Can you refer me examples of how it's used? It is foreign to me. – billyandr Feb 19 at 6:59
  • @JouleV On this handout I found a way to draw a function by specifying discrete points and let PGF/Tikz draw the rest. Yet, I don't know in and out. Coud you please help me on this? Thanks in advance. – billyandr Feb 19 at 7:37
  • do you have any more information about the function? this would probably help others in answering your question, i.e. finding the composite curve equation. I am far from being an expert, but I believe, without the equation, you might be better off drawing the curve in e.g. inkscape and then including it in your LaTeX document. Do you have any code to show that shows what you have tried, yet? – thymaro Feb 19 at 7:38
  • 1
    oh ok, then the presenter should have the equation, I hope. For general information on how to use tikz, I recommend youtube tutorials and/or texample.net/tikz/examples – thymaro Feb 19 at 7:47
20

To get the exact slope without the definition of the function, you can use to[out=...,in=...] by TikZ. The following diagram may show you all about to:

enter image description here

You want slope of the plot is −1 at some points. You can have it by to[out=135,in=-45] if you are going up, or to[out=-45,in=135] if you are going down. This can be proved by using simple trigonometry.

So your plot can be "encoded" to TikZ as

\documentclass[tikz,margin=3mm]{standalone}
\usepackage{mathptmx}
\begin{document}
\begin{tikzpicture} 
\draw[-latex] (0,0) node[below left] {0}--(0,6) node[left] {$v_O$};
\draw[-latex] (0,0)--(6,0) node[below] {$v_I$};
\draw[dashed] (0,5) node[left] {$V_{OH}$}--(1.5,5)--(1.5,0) node[below] {$V_{IL}$};
\draw[dashed] (0,2.5) node[left] {$V_M$}--(2.5,2.5)--(2.5,0) node[below] {$V_M$};
\draw[dashed] (0,0.5) node[left] {$V_{OL}$}--(5,0.5)--(5,0) node[below] {$V_{OH}$};
\draw (0.5,0) node[below] {$V_{OL}$}--(0.5,.1);
\draw[dashed] (3.5,0) node[below] {$V_{IH}$}--(3.5,1);
\draw[very thick,cyan] (5.65,.45) to[out=180,in=-8] (5,.5) to[out=172,in=-45] (3.5,1) to[out=135,in=-70] (2.5,2.5);
\draw[very thick,cyan] (0,5)--(1.4,5) to[out=0,in=135] (1.6,4.9) to[out=-45,in=110] (2.5,2.5);
\draw (1.1,5.4)--(2.1,4.4);
\draw (1.5,5) node[above right] {Slope $=-1$};
\draw (2.9,1.6)--(3.9,0.6);
\draw (3.5,1) node[above right] {Slope $=-1$};
\draw (0,0)--(4,4);
\node (nd) at (5.3,3.5) {Slope $=$ 1}; % Long live the palindromes!
\draw[-latex] (nd) to[out=180,in=-45] (3.8,3.8);
\end{tikzpicture}
\end{document}

enter image description here

It is not really a replicate of your figure, but I think it is close enough.

Important Note

You can use many other awesome methods to draw such a plot (but I'm afraid making the slope equal to −1 is more difficult). A good summary of such methods can be found in this very nice answer.

  • 3
    You're so great. You were faster than me. I will spend the rest of the afternoon trying to reproduce and understand the lines of your code. – billyandr Feb 19 at 9:53
  • +1 for the bece explanation of the to directive. But in the provided snapshot the slope lines (tangents) look rather bad, and even seem to not be real tangents... – Jhor Feb 20 at 8:20
  • @Jhor Thanks for the upvote. In fact, the slope lines are the real tangents (otherwise there is a bug in TikZ's to), and we can prove the slopes are equal to 1 as well. It is not really clear because the slope lines are too short, I think. I will possibly improve it now. – JouleV Feb 20 at 8:26
  • 1
    @JouleV In fact, the problem merely comes from the fact that you don't have exactly the proper (radius of) curvature. This is more visible on the upper point, where the derivative seems to be (almost) discontinuous. On an other hand, the curve in the OP crosses the horizontal line at V_{OL}, and you draw it more or less as an asymptot. – Jhor Feb 20 at 8:45
  • @Jhor I agree. Of course, without the definition of the curve, it is a bit hard, and it requires a bit guess as well. I have to guess at two points: (1) the sharpness at (V_{IL},V_{OH}) and (2) the angle at (V_M,V_M). My figure is clearly a bit different from the OP's at [V_{IL}, V_{M}]. That is why I said "It is not really a replicate of your figure, but I think it is close enough.". The OP should make a slight change in the code to fit the figure better if necessary. – JouleV Feb 20 at 9:05
4

This is more an extended comment. Your function looks like a Gaussian.

\documentclass[tikz,border=3.14mm]{standalone}
\usetikzlibrary{intersections}
\begin{document}
\begin{tikzpicture}[declare function={mygauss(\x)=4*exp(-\x*\x/2)+0.5;}]
 \draw[thick,stealth-stealth] (0,5.5) |- (5,0);
 \draw[thick,cyan,name path=curve] (0,4.5) -- plot[variable=\x,domain=0:4,smooth]({\x+1},{mygauss(\x)});
 \draw[thick,name path=line] (0,0) -- (4,4);
 \path[name intersections={of=curve and line,by=i2}]
 (1+0.2585,{mygauss(0.2585)}) coordinate (i1)
 (1+2.0518,{mygauss(2.0518)}) coordinate (i3)
 (1+3,{mygauss(3)}) coordinate (i4);
 \draw[dashed] (i1|-0,0) node[below]{$V_{IL}$} -- (i1);
 \draw[dashed] (i2|-0,0) node[below]{$V_{M}$} -- (i2) -- (i2-|0,0) node[left]{$V_{M}$};
 \draw[dashed] (i3|-0,0) node[below]{$V_{IH}$} -- (i3);
 \draw[dashed] (i4|-0,0) node[below]{$V_{OH}$} -- (i4) -- 
 (i4-|0,0) node[left]{$V_{OL}$};
 \foreach \X in {1,3}
 {\draw (i\X) -- ++ (-0.3,0.3) -- ++ (0.6,-0.6);}
\end{tikzpicture}
\end{document}

enter image description here

(I have not seen an example on this site that cannot be fitted by some elementary functions like polynomials, sines, exp, tanh, or Gaussian functions.)

  • Thanks for the comment and the extra explanation! This may get out of the scope of tex.se but I would really love to know how you did the fitting process for a random graph encountered. This is useful. – billyandr Feb 20 at 2:22
  • @mandresybilly To me this doesn't look random. If you have seen a sign before, an oscillatory function may remind you of a sine. Likewise, this is rather reminiscent of a Gaussian. (From the description of what it is supposed to describe, I would have expected a tanh shape, though.) Many important processes can be modeled by very simple models, and the solutions of the equations of motion are then elementary functions. – marmot Feb 20 at 2:27
  • I was thinking of a sigmoid. But your expression 4*exp(-\x*\x/2)+0.5 looks so on point. I would never have found it. How? – billyandr Feb 20 at 2:33
  • @mandresybilly I am sorry, if you expect a simple recipe, I can't provide one. It is a little bit like mushroom picking: you identify them on the basis of their characteristics. (BTW, have you ever read how Planck got his famous radiation formula?;-) – marmot Feb 20 at 3:11
  • I guess it's a matter of practice then! Thank you for the advice! And no, I don't know how Planck got his radiation formula but I definitely will look it up. – billyandr Feb 20 at 3:18
3

I arbitrarily chose V_M to be 2.5 and scaled the curve to go from 0.5 to 4.5.

To locate where the slope equals 1, you take the scale factor for x divided by the scale factor for y (or 0.125 in this case) and locate where the Gaussian equals 0.125 (about x=1.52) and convert back to axis units.

I copied the table by hand from a CRC handbook. (You're welcome.)

\begin{filecontents}{gauss.csv}
x,p,erf
0.00,0.3989,0.0000
0.05,0.3984,0.0199
0.10,0.3970,0.0398
0.15,0.3945,0.0596
0.20,0.3910,0.0793
0.25,0.3867,0.0987
0.30,0.3814,0.1179
0.35,0.3752,0.1368
0.40,0.3683,0.1554
0.45,0.3605,0.1736
0.50,0.3521,0.1915
0.55,0.3429,0.2088
0.60,0.3332,0.2258
0.65,0.3230,0.2422
0.70,0.3123,0.2580
0.75,0.3011,0.2734
0.80,0.2897,0.2881
0.85,0.2780,0.3023
0.90,0.2661,0.3159
0.95,0.2541,0.3289
1.00,0.2420,0.3413
1.05,0.2299,0.3531
1.10,0.2179,0.3643
1.15,0.2059,0.3749
1.20,0.1942,0.3849
1.25,0.1827,0.3944
1.30,0.1713,0.4032
1.35,0.1604,0.4115
1.40,0.1497,0.4192
1.45,0.1394,0.4265
1.50,0.1295,0.4332
1.55,0.1200,0.4394
1.60,0.1109,0.4452
1.65,0.1023,0.4505
1.70,0.0941,0.4554
1.75,0.0863,0.4599
1.80,0.0790,0.4641
1.85,0.0721,0.4678
1.90,0.0656,0.4713
1.95,0.0596,0.4740
2.00,0.0540,0.4773
2.05,0.0488,0.4798
2.10,0.0440,0.4821
2.15,0.0396,0.4842
2.20,0.0355,0.4861
2.25,0.0317,0.4878
2.30,0.0283,0.4893
2.35,0.0252,0.4906
2.40,0.0224,0.4918
2.45,0.0198,0.4929
2.50,0.0175,0.4938
2.55,0.0155,0.4946
2.60,0.0136,0.4953
2.65,0.0119,0.4950
2.70,0.0104,0.4965
2.75,0.0091,0.4970
2.80,0.0079,0.4974
2.85,0.0069,0.4978
2.90,0.0060,0.4981
2.95,0.0051,0.4984
3.00,0.0044,0.4987
\end{filecontents}
\documentclass[tikz,border=3.14mm]{standalone}
\usetikzlibrary{intersections}
\usepackage{pgfplots,pgfplotstable}
\begin{document}
\pgfplotstableread[col sep=comma]{gauss.csv}\rawtable
\begin{tikzpicture}
\begin{axis}[axis x line=bottom, axis y line=left, clip=false,
    xtick=\empty, ytick=\empty,
    xmin=0, xmax=5, ymin=0, ymax=5]
  \addplot[thick,color=cyan,no marks] coordinates {(0,4.5) (1,4.4948)};
  \addplot[thick,color=cyan,no marks] table[x expr={2.5-0.5*\thisrow{x}},
    y expr={2.5+4*\thisrow{erf}}] {\rawtable};
  \addplot[thick,color=cyan,no marks] table[x expr={2.5+0.5*\thisrow{x}},
    y expr={2.5-4*\thisrow{erf}}] {\rawtable};
  \addplot[thick,color=cyan,no marks] coordinates {(4,0.5025) (5,0.5)};
  \node[left] at (axis cs: 0,4.5) {$V_{0H}$};
  \draw[dashed] (axis cs: 4.5,0) node[below] {$V_{0H}$} -- (axis cs: 4.5,0.5025);
  \draw[dashed] (axis cs: 0,0.5025) node[left] {$V_{0L}$}  -- (axis cs: 4.5,0.5025);
  \draw (axis cs: 0.5025,0) node[below] {$V_{0L}$}  -- (axis cs: 0.5025,0.1);
  \draw (axis cs: 0,0) -- (axis cs: 4,4);
  \draw[dashed] (axis cs: 2.5,0) node[below] {$V_M$} -- (axis cs: 2.5,2.5);
  \draw[dashed] (axis cs: 0,2.5) node[left] {$V_M$} -- (axis cs: 2.5,2.5);
  \draw[dashed] (axis cs: 1.75,0) node[below] {$V_{1L}$} -- (axis cs: 1.75,4.2428);
  \draw (axis cs: 1.5,4.4928) -- (axis cs: 2.0, 3.9928);
  \draw[dashed] (axis cs: 3.25,0) node[below] {$V_{2L}$} -- (axis cs: 3.25,0.7572);
  \draw (axis cs: 3.0,1.0072) -- (axis cs: 3.5, 0.5072);
  \end{axis}
\end{tikzpicture}
\end{document}

demo

  • John your answer is a treat. To be honest, I don't know what a CRC handbook is so after googling it, I assune there is a book in which one can find the detailed graphing of a NOT gate transfer characteristic as a table and not as an explicit expression like in @marmot's answer above. Is that correct? – billyandr Feb 22 at 0:50
  • Did you find en.wikipedia.org/wiki/CRC_Handbook_of_Chemistry_and_Physics? As stated, the table contains the Gaussian distribution and error function. This is not to say that the handbook doesn't contain BJT tables, but I didn't actually look. – John Kormylo Feb 22 at 18:06

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