6

In one of my previous answers, my first proposal

\documentclass[tikz]{standalone}
\usetikzlibrary{quotes,angles}
\begin{document}
\begin{tikzpicture}
\draw (0,-4)--(0,4) node[above] {$Im$} (-4,0)--(4,0) node[right] {$Re$};
\draw[dashed] (0,0) circle (3) circle (2);
\coordinate (a) at (80:3);
\coordinate (b) at (3,0);
\coordinate (m) at (25:2);
\coordinate (n) at (-95:2);
\coordinate (p) at (145:2);
\coordinate (o) at (0,0);
\fill[black] (a) circle (2pt) (b) circle (2pt) (m) circle (2pt) (n) circle (2pt) (p) circle (2pt) (2,0) circle (2pt);
\draw (a) node[above right] {$z=|z|e^{i\theta}$};
\draw (b) node[below] {$|z|$};
\draw (2,0) node[below] {$|z|^{1/3}$};
\draw (m) node[right] {$|z|^{1/3}e^{i\theta/3}$};
\draw (n) node[below] {$|z|^{1/3}e^{i(\theta+4\pi)/3}$};
\draw (p) node[above] {$|z|^{1/3}e^{i(\theta+2\pi)/3}$};
\draw (.1,1.5)--(0,1.5) node[left] {$i$};
\draw (1.5,.1)--(1.5,0) node[below] {$1$};
\draw (0,0)--(a) (0,0)--(m) (0,0)--(n) (0,0)--(p);
\draw[dashed] (m)--(n)--(p)--cycle;
\pic[draw,dashed,thick,"$\theta$",angle radius=0.8cm,angle eccentricity=1.3] {angle=b--o--a};
\end{tikzpicture}
\end{document}

gives this output

Seeing that it is a bit difficult to read some nodes (like the |z|1/3ei (θ + 2 π)/3 one), I redefine the inner sep and set the fill color of the nodes. Eventually I get

\documentclass[tikz]{standalone}
\usetikzlibrary{quotes,angles,positioning}
\begin{document}
\begin{tikzpicture}
\begin{scope}[every node/.style={fill=white,inner sep=2pt}]
\draw (0,-4)--(0,4) node[above] {$\Im$} (-4,0)--(4,0) node[right] {$\Re$};
\draw[dashed] (0,0) circle (3) circle (2);
\coordinate (a) at (80:3);
\coordinate (b) at (3,0);
\coordinate (m) at (80/3:2);
\coordinate (n) at ({80/3-120}:2);
\coordinate (p) at ({80/3+120}:2);
\coordinate (o) at (0,0);
\draw (a) node[above right] {$z=|z|e^{i\theta}$};
\draw (b) node[below right] {$|z|$};
\draw (2,0) node[below left=0cm and -2em] {$|z|^{1/3}$};
\draw (m) node[right] {$|z|^{1/3}e^{i\theta/3}$};
\draw (n) node[below] {$|z|^{1/3}e^{i(\theta+4\pi)/3}$};
\draw (p) node[above] {$|z|^{1/3}e^{i(\theta+2\pi)/3}$};
\draw (.1,1.5)--(0,1.5) node[left] {$i$};
\draw (1.5,.1)--(1.5,0) node[below] {$1$};
\draw (0,0)--(a) (0,0)--(m) (0,0)--(n) (0,0)--(p);
\draw[dashed] (m)--(n)--(p)--cycle;
\end{scope}
\pic[draw,dashed,thick,"$\theta$",angle radius=0.8cm,angle eccentricity=1.3] {angle=b--o--a};
\fill[black] (a) circle (2pt) (b) circle (2pt) (m) circle (2pt) (n) circle (2pt) (p) circle (2pt) (2,0) circle (2pt);
\end{tikzpicture}
\end{document}

The separation of the nodes and the paths are now quite good IMHO, except some cases where the separation is over-made:

A solution to it is to change the default rectangle node shape

to something like this

Sorry, I am not good at drawing, especially drawing with a computer mouse.

In other word, I think I have to create a new TikZ node shape which depends on the maximum and the minimum "y-coordinates" of all characters.

It is way too complicated to me, and I haven't found a hint on this.

Can you help me? Any help is much appreciated.

6

Maybe the contour package is a solution for you (See also this answer)?

\documentclass[tikz, border=2mm]{standalone}

\usepackage[outline]{contour}
\contourlength{2pt}  % increase the white space

\usetikzlibrary{patterns}

\begin{document}

\begin{tikzpicture}
\draw [step=.25] (-2,-.5) grid (2,.5);

\node[] at (0,0) {\contour{white}{$|z|^{1/3}e^{i(\theta+2\pi)/3}$}};

\end{tikzpicture}

\end{document}

enter image description here


Note: The above does not work with XeLaTeX or LuaLaTeX. In this case you need to remove the outline option and add for example \contournumber{60} (or a higher number, depending on the desired smoothness of the edges of the white space, see the documentation of the package).

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