Misplaced alignment tab character &. \printbibliography[heading=bibintoc,title={References}

line 29: Misplaced alignment tab character &. ...raphy[heading=bibintoc,title={References}]

i am getting this error and i can not find a entry in my bib file with a "&" that i havent allredy changed to "\&". can enyone help me?

  • 1
    Welcome to TeX.SE! Please provide a minimal working example to help us help you!
    – user156344
    Mar 19, 2019 at 11:52
  • 1
    Welcome to TeX.SX! It's quite hard to tell with so little information. The error message should contain the line in which the error happened, which might give a clue on which entry contains the stray &. Give us more info to work on, please. Mar 19, 2019 at 11:52
  • 4
    Note that errors like this can persist in the temporary files and may occur even if the source .bib is fixed. Delete all temporary files (.aux, .bbl, .bcf, ...) and recompile from scratch. If the error persists, there is still an unescaped & in the .bib.
    – moewe
    Mar 19, 2019 at 12:07

2 Answers 2


Answer 2 was very helpful, the problem was that a had used a & instead of the word and in an author's name, I found it and correct it but it was until I erased the .bbl and .blg (both in my reference files and my main file, make a backup first) files then I have compiled with BibTeX then compile with pdflatex that the problem was corrected.


I had the same problem in the .bib file, I foumd that I am using the & sign in the titles of the articles or in the journal name, I escaped it by using \ before the sign like below \& , then the error disappeared

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