enter image description here

  title        = {{Socioeconomic Status}},
  howpublished = {{https://www.apa.org/topics/socioeconomic-status/}},
  note         = {{Accessed: 2019-02-16}},
  url          = {https://www.apa.org/topics/socioeconomic-status/},
  urldate      = {2019-02-16},


  • Please add a MWE. Welcome to TeX.SE. – Raaja Mar 23 at 7:24

The ???? issue arises because the model1-num-names bibliography style expects to find a non-empty year field in an entry of type @misc. The entry at hand contains a field called urldate, but none called year.

Given that the model1-num-names bibliography style does know what to do with a field called url, you should probably delete the redundant howpublished field. (If you do decide to keep the howpublished field, you should encase its contents in a \url directive if the contents consist of a URL string.)

enter image description here

  title         = {{Socioeconomic Status}},
  xhowpublished = {\url{https://www.apa.org/topics/socioeconomic-status/}},
  note          = {{Accessed}: 2019-02-16},
  url           = {https://www.apa.org/topics/socioeconomic-status/},
  xurldate      = {2019-02-16},
  year          = 2019,

%% I've commented out all preamble instructions 
%% that are irrelevant to the problem at hand.
\bibliographystyle{model1-num-names} % from https://www.elsevier.com/authors/author-schemas/latex-instructions
\usepackage{xurl} % allow line breaks anywhere in a URL string

\bibliography{XYZ} % don't inlcude the ".bib" extension

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