enter image description here

  title        = {{Socioeconomic Status}},
  howpublished = {{https://www.apa.org/topics/socioeconomic-status/}},
  note         = {{Accessed: 2019-02-16}},
  url          = {https://www.apa.org/topics/socioeconomic-status/},
  urldate      = {2019-02-16},


  • Please add a MWE. Welcome to TeX.SE. – Raaja Mar 23 at 7:24

The ???? issue arises because the model1-num-names bibliography style expects to find a non-empty year field in an entry of type @misc. The entry at hand contains a field called urldate, but none called year.

Given that the model1-num-names bibliography style does know what to do with a field called url, you should probably delete the redundant howpublished field. (If you do decide to keep the howpublished field, you should encase its contents in a \url directive if the contents consist of a URL string.)

enter image description here

  title         = {{Socioeconomic Status}},
  xhowpublished = {\url{https://www.apa.org/topics/socioeconomic-status/}},
  note          = {{Accessed}: 2019-02-16},
  url           = {https://www.apa.org/topics/socioeconomic-status/},
  xurldate      = {2019-02-16},
  year          = 2019,

%% I've commented out all preamble instructions 
%% that are irrelevant to the problem at hand.
\bibliographystyle{model1-num-names} % from https://www.elsevier.com/authors/author-schemas/latex-instructions
\usepackage{xurl} % allow line breaks anywhere in a URL string

\bibliography{XYZ} % don't inlcude the ".bib" extension
  • Thank you for your response. Could you please explain why you are adding this: \RequirePackage{filecontents} \begin{filecontents}{XYZ.bib} ? I have tried adding year, but unfortunately it is not working on my end. :( – Kazi Aurnob Apr 21 at 8:27
  • @KaziAurnob - The filecontents package lets you create external files -- here, XYZ.bib -- on the fly. I used this package in order to provide a standalone compilable solution. In practice, one would never create "real" bib files -- which may contain dozens or even hundreds of bib entries -- in this manner. Instead, one would edit the bib file using an editor program. Please be more specific as to what "it is not working on my end" means. E.g., do you get error and/or warning messages? And, after changing the bib file, did you rerun bibtex for running LaTeX twice more? – Mico Apr 21 at 9:35
  • I am working on overleaf, do you think that might be the issue? – Kazi Aurnob Apr 27 at 7:12
  • @KaziAurnob - I'm afraid I'm not sure which "issue" you're referring to. – Mico Apr 27 at 7:43
  • thanks for your help, it worked. the "issue" I was referring to was that even after adding the "year" field, the problem sustained. I was working on overleaf.com when I shifted to miktex, it was solved – Kazi Aurnob Apr 28 at 18:32

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