# Using the author names and ampersand symbol (&) instead of the words “et al.” in the text for style apa

I want to use the author names and ampersand symbols (&) instead of the word "and" in text for style apa, so e.g.

Maji, Biswas & Roy (2001) instead of Maji et al. (2001)


and

(Maji, Biswas & Roy,2001) instead of (Maji et al., 2001)


In my apalike.bst file, the format.lab.names function is as follows:

    FUNCTION {format.lab.names}
{ 's :=
s #1 "{vv~}{ll}" format.name$s num.names$ duplicate$#2 > { pop$ " et~al." * }
{ #2 <
'skip${ s #2 "{ff }{vv }{ll}{ jj}" format.name$ "others" =
{ " et~al." * }
{ " \& " * s #2 "{vv~}{ll}" format.name$* } if$
}
if$} if$
}


How can I do what I want from this part?

• Welcome to TeX SX! Could you consider using biblatex-apa? – Bernard Mar 24 at 19:49
• The apalike bibliography style more than 30 years old and (probably unsurprisingly) no longer implements the "latest" APA formatting guidelines. If your objective is to conform to the APA6 citation call-out guidelines, you should load the apacite package along with the apacite bibliography style. If you pursue the apacite route, you won't have to fiddle to get the & conjunction particles. – Mico Mar 24 at 19:52

Let me start by observing that your proposed formatting objective does NOT adhere to current APA standards for citation call-outs. First, the & symbol should be used for "parenthetic" citation call-outs (and for the formatted entries), but for some reason NOT for "text-style" citation call-outs. For the latter type of citation call-outs, the conjunction to be used continues to be and. Second, for the second and all further instances of a citation call-out of a piece with three or more authors, one is most definitely supposed to use et al, rather than keep repeating the full list of names.

Next, the apalike bibliography style is about 35 years old by now and, as such, does not reflect current APA requirements for the formatting of citation call-outs and bibliographic items. Rather than pointlessly tinker with the positively ancient apalike bibliography style, you'd be much better off loading the apacite bibliography style along with the apacite citation management package.

\RequirePackage{filecontents}
\begin{filecontents}{mybib.bib}
@article{abr01,
author = "P. K. Maji and R. Biswas and A. R. Roy",
title  = "Intuitionistic fuzzy soft sets",
journal= "The Journal of Fuzzy Mathematics",
year   = 2001,
volume = 9,
number = 3,
pages  = "677--692",
}
\end{filecontents}

\documentclass{article}
\usepackage[natbibapa]{apacite} % to enable '\citet' and '\citep' macros
\bibliographystyle{apacite}

\begin{document}
\citet{abr01}, \citet{abr01}

\citep*{abr01}, \citep{abr01}
\bibliography{mybib}
\end{document}