So, I am currently writing using the agsm bibliography style to generate Harvard-style (aka authoryear-style) citation call-outs. The problem is that I am writing in swedish and when I want to cite publications with two authors, then \citep{carlsson2007evidence} will generate the following "Carlsson and Rooth (2007)". However, I want to replace "and" with "och".

I found a similar question here Change citation conjunction from "and" to "i" where the solution is to modify the .bst file in order to change the conjunction but I dont know where I need to modify in the .bst file.

Can someone tell me where I need to modify the .bst file or if there is another solution to the problem?

  • With agsm it should be enough to redefine the command \harvardand in your preamble: \renewcommand*{\harvardand}{i} (or \newcommand*{\harvardand}{i} depending on whether or not the command is already defined by a package you load). No need to modify the .bst file.
    – moewe
    Apr 8, 2019 at 9:30
  • Hmm. Ok. This is my preamble: \documentclass[12pt]{article} \usepackage[utf8]{inputenc} \usepackage[swedish]{babel} \usepackage{framed} \usepackage{natbib} \usepackage{pdfpages} \usepackage[hyphens, spaces, obeyspaces]{url} \usepackage[hidelinks]{hyperref} \usepackage[toc,page]{appendix} \usepackage{graphicx} \usepackage{setspace} \usepackage{mhchem} \usepackage[margin = 1in]{geometry} \usepackage{fancyhdr} % loads the package \usepackage{subcaption} \usepackage{amsmath, amsthm, amssymb, amsfonts} \renewcommand*{\harvardand}{och} I get an error: \harvardand undefined. Why? Apr 8, 2019 at 9:47
  • Right! I used \newcommand*{\harvardand}{och}. It works! Thank you! :) Apr 8, 2019 at 9:49
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    – Mensch
    Aug 25, 2019 at 2:34

2 Answers 2


The styles of the harvard use the macro \harvardand for "and". You can (re)define that macro as you see fit. Depending on the package you are using (natbib or harvard) and where you are issuing the (re)definition, you may have to use \newcommand or \renewcommand.




If I understand your objective correctly, you want the conjunction used in "text-style" citation call-outs (the call-outs generated by \citet) to be "och" and the conjunction used in "parenthetic-style citation call-outs (the call-outs generated by \citep) to be \&.

The apacite bibliography style actually implements exactly this approach. If you're free to switch from agsm to apacite, all you'd have to do extra is to run the instruction \renewcommand{\BBAB}{och}, to switch the conjunction word from "and" to "och".

enter image description here

  author = "A and B",
  title  = "Thoughts",
  year   = 3001,


\citet{ab:3001}. \citep{ab:3001}.

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