I am back again with a question of modifying the "harvard citation style" using agsm and natbib. I need to change the conjunction in my essay according to the the row "två författare" in this pdf https://www.hb.se/Global/HB%20-%20externt/BLR/Skriva%20och%20referera/Lathund_harvard2018.pdf

Recently I succeeded in changing the "and" conjunction to the corresponding swedish conjunction "och" using \newcommand*{\harvardand}{och}. Now, when writing \cite{carlsson2007evidence} bidrar med bevis the output in the pdf will be "Carlsson och Rooth bidrar med bevis", which is exactly what I want.

The problem arises when writing

[...] av människor inom samma samhälle\citep[s.~12]{edling2010ett}. 

This yields

[...] av människor inom samma samhälle''(Edling och Liljeros 2010, s. 12). 

What I want here is an & instead of och, as suggested in the pdf above.

So, my question is: How I am supposed to change och to & when using the \citep{} command, while still having och when using the \cite{} command?


  • 1
    It sounds like what you're trying to achieve is APA-style formatting of the conjunction used in citation call-outs: & in parenthetic-style citation call-outs and och (or and, or whatever the local language calls for) for text-style citation call-outs. Can you confirm that this impression is correct?
    – Mico
    Commented Apr 15, 2019 at 7:00
  • yes that is correct! Commented Apr 28, 2019 at 14:26
  • Are you familiar with the apacite bibliography style and the associated apacite citation management package? It does exactly what you're looking to do.
    – Mico
    Commented Apr 28, 2019 at 14:34
  • no! I have only used the agsm and IEEE bib style. Commented Apr 28, 2019 at 14:42
  • I've gone ahead and posted an answer to show how to use the apacite package along with Swedish-language adjustments.
    – Mico
    Commented Apr 28, 2019 at 16:01

1 Answer 1


Since it looks like your bibliography must conform to the APA formatting guidelines -- of course, with suitable Swedish language adjustments -- I suggest you load the apacite package and bibliography style. If you load the babel package with the option swedish, Swedish language adjustments, such as the use of och instead of and as the conjunction, will be made automatically in the bibliography and in the citation call-outs.

Be sure to laod the apacite package with the option natbibapa so that you can keep using \citep and \citet (or \cite).

enter image description here

   author = "Edling and Liljeros",
   title  = "Thoughts",
   year   = 2010,



  • Thanks! I will try using this instead. Though I must say I'm feeling a bit confused since every single quick reference guide I've found for Harvard says that citations should look exactly as those you've shown for APA above. It is very confusing. Commented Apr 29, 2019 at 10:36
  • @VictorGaleano - Don't feel bad for feeling somewhat confused. The term "harvard" can have several meanings when applied to bibliographies and citation call-outs. To cut down on potential confusion, it's a good idea to call the style of the citation call-outs "author-year" rather than "harvard". The LaTeX package called harvard (and its agsm bib style) have no exclusive claim on implementing authoryear-style citation call-outs and formatted bibliographic entries.
    – Mico
    Commented Apr 29, 2019 at 13:26

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