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(New to LaTeX, so please answer in detail and with examples)

I am trying to write a report, and at one part I have a list of questions I need to propose. However, whenever I try to add the list, the spacing between the subsection and text "The purpose of this work..." is super large/ugly.

\subsubsection{Leaf Parallelization}
A single tree is shared with a single thread used to operate on the tree. Whenever a simulation run is required, the thread hands the simulation to another thread which runs independently. Introduced by Cazenave and Jouandeau [8], leaf parallelization is one of the simplest ways to parallelize MCTS. However, since simulations assigned earlier are completed and reused, leaf parallelization is slow as it cannot utilize high numbers of threads.
\subsection{Purpose, Research Question, and Hypotheses}
The purpose of this work described is to explore the question of how the amount of shared information affects the win-ratio performance of a game learned through a slow-tree parallelized Monte Carlo Tree Search. Since the size of the board can be scaled up, outcomes in simple environments can be separated distinctively, and results can be compared with each other, the game Dots-and-Boxes is utilized.

The following research question has been formed to guide this investigation:

Q: How does the amount of shared information affect the win-ratio performance?

The amount of shared information can be varied in four aspects:

a)

b)

enter image description here

with the a) and b) removed, however, the PDF looks correct: enter image description here

I see what is happening, but I do not know how to fix it. Thanks!

  • You should use a list environment for a) and b) (enumerate). Please add a compilable minimal example code – user156344 Apr 26 at 5:53
  • \raggedbottom is most likely what you are looking for – David Carlisle Apr 26 at 7:08
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This is almost certainly happening because of the heading on the next page (Methods). LaTeX is trying quite hard to keep the heading with at least some text: it is not finding that it has room to put the heading and some text on the first page, so it's moving it to the next page because it's very reluctant to have an orphan heading at the bottom of the page. But that means the first page is running short, so it's then padding out that page between paragraphs and headings to try to force the last line to the bottom of the text block.

When you delete something on the first page, the space is sufficient and it moves up heading 3. No more padding (or at least less). That at least is my guess.

JouleV is right (in his comment) to say that for a list of questions it would be better to use a list environment, which looks like

\begin{enumerate}
\item First item
\item Second item
\end{enumerate}

Though that is not necessarily a solution in this case. The "solution" is probably one of these things:

  • Rewrite some text so that you have more or less space. Whether that's possible depends on the particular situation, but sometimes a tiny change in the text can make something fit which otherwise didn't.

  • Add \raggedbottom to your document. With \raggedbottom LaTeX will no longer add space to try to make your pages run to the same length. Any gap will be at the end of a page. This often looks better, and is usually a good choice for documents with lots of headings and subheadings. Anyway, it's easy to try and see whether it helps.

  • Use special directives like \enlargethispage to allow particular pages to run long or (using negative numbers) short. This tells LaTeX to let text on a particular page be longer or shorter than the normal margins allow. It produces unbalanced pages, but it's sometimes the only way of avoiding ugly breaks. The main thing to know about this is that you should not do it until you are sure that you won't be rewriting anything, because otherwise you end up with a real mess.

Which really takes me to my final bit of advice. It's best not to worry about this sort of thing too much until your document is more or less complete. Because this sort of spacing problem is very sensitive to content it's best to get the content complete first, and only then make changes. If your practice is to write by outlining the document with sections and subsections first then fill them in you will often see such issues; they usually get quite a bit better as you fill the document out.

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