# How to replace space with '+' symbol in a triangular array?

How can I make number pattern like this But, all spaces are replaced with plus signs ?

• Welcome to TeX.SE! – Mensch May 5 at 4:03
• In the final row of your screenshot, should there be a space between 10 and 11? – Mico May 5 at 4:12

## 5 Answers

Let's employ TikZ and some simple algorithms for such things.

\documentclass[tikz]{standalone}
\begin{document}
\begin{tikzpicture}[x=5ex,y=5ex]
\def\maxnum{11} % Change the size here
\foreach \i in {1,...,\maxnum} {
% Draw the numbers
\pgfmathsetmacro\auxnum{\maxnum-\i+1}
\foreach \j in {1,...,\auxnum}
\node (\i-\j) at (\i,\j) {\i};
% Draw the plus signs
\ifnum\i=\maxnum\relax\else
\pgfmathsetmacro\auxnum{\maxnum-\i}
\foreach \j in {1,...,\auxnum}
\node[anchor=base] at ([shift={(.5,0)}]\i-\j.base) {+};
\fi
}
\end{tikzpicture}
\end{document} A little bonus:

\documentclass[tikz]{standalone}
\begin{document}
\begin{tikzpicture}[x=5ex,y=5ex]
\def\maxnum{11}
\foreach \i in {1,...,\maxnum} {
% Draw the numbers
\pgfmathsetmacro\auxnum{\maxnum-\i+1}
\foreach \j in {1,...,\auxnum}
\node (\i-\j) at (\i,\j) {\i};
% Draw the plus signs
\ifnum\i=\maxnum\relax\else
\pgfmathsetmacro\auxnum{\maxnum-\i}
\foreach \j in {1,...,\auxnum}
\node[anchor=base] at ([shift={(.5,0)}]\i-\j.base) {+};
\fi
% The rest :)
\pgfmathsetmacro\sumoutput{int((\maxnum-\i+1)*(\maxnum-\i+2)/2)}
\node (output-\i) at (\maxnum+1,\i) {\sumoutput};
\node[anchor=base] at ([shift={(-.5,0)}]output-\i.base) {=};
}
\end{tikzpicture}
\end{document} Not sure what do you really want to get by "to the right", but maybe this?

\documentclass[tikz]{standalone}
\begin{document}
\begin{tikzpicture}[x=5ex,y=5ex]
\def\maxnum{11}
\foreach \i in {1,...,\maxnum} {
% numbers - simpler than the above code
\foreach \j [count=\k] in {\i,...,1}
\node (\i-\j) at (\i,\j) {\k};
% plus signs - a bit simpler
\ifnum\i=\maxnum\relax\else
\foreach \j in {\i,...,1}
\node[anchor=base] at ([shift={(.5,0)}]\i-\j.base) {+};
\fi
% I keep the "bonus" part - it needs no improvements
\pgfmathsetmacro\sumoutput{int((\maxnum-\i+1)*(\maxnum-\i+2)/2)}
\node (output-\i) at (\maxnum+1,\i) {\sumoutput};
\node[anchor=base] at ([shift={(-.5,0)}]output-\i.base) {=};
}
\end{tikzpicture}
\end{document} ## Comparison with other answers

Other answers are very good, but it seems that this answer is totally different from all other answers (which are somehow a little similar to each other). This is the pros and cons of this answer compared to the others. Read it to consider what to use.

### Pros

The numbers and signs are aligned in a perfect square. So you can have something like this

\documentclass[tikz]{standalone}
\usetikzlibrary{backgrounds,fit,calc}
\begin{document}
\begin{tikzpicture}[x=5ex,y=5ex]
\def\maxnum{11} % Change the size here
\foreach \i in {1,...,\maxnum} {
% numbers - simpler than the above code
\foreach \j [count=\k] in {\i,...,1}
\node[minimum size=.55cm] (\i-\j) at (\i,\j) {\k};
% plus signs - a bit simpler
\ifnum\i=\maxnum\relax\else
\foreach \j in {\i,...,1}
\node[anchor=base] at ([shift={(.5,0)}]\i-\j.base) {+};
\fi
% I keep the "bonus" part - it needs no improvements
\pgfmathsetmacro\sumoutput{int((\maxnum-\i+1)*(\maxnum-\i+2)/2)}
\node (output-\i) at (\maxnum+1,\i) {\sumoutput};
\node[anchor=base] at ([shift={(-.5,0)}]output-\i.base) {=};
}
\begin{scope}[on background layer]
\path[fill=red!10,draw=red,thick]
([shift={( .1,-.1)}]1-1.north west) --
([shift={( .1,-.1)}]11-11.north west)
arc (135:-45:{.55/sqrt(2)}) --
([shift={(-.1, .1)}]1-1.south east)
arc (315:135:{.55/sqrt(2)}); % Well, possibly this is not the best
% way to draw this, but this is only
% for illustration purpose.
\draw[red,thick,<-]
($([shift={( .1,-.1)}]1-1.north west)!.45!([shift={( .1,-.1)}]11-11.north west)$)
-- + (-2,1) node[pos=1.3] {Looks! All are number 1!};
\end{scope}
\end{tikzpicture}
\end{document} In other answers, the numbers, say 1, are not perfectly aligned if \maxnum is greater than 9, so it is harder to draw such a path.

### Cons

It is very clear: the spacing between the numbers and the plus signs are inconsistent. But when I follow this approach (insert the plus signs separately), I have to accept this kind of spacing.

Btw, the numbers after the equal signs are not right-aligned. This is fixable, but a fix will make the code much more complicated (if I want to automatically determine the width of the node of the "sum"). I don't think this is a major problem though.

• What if you want to make it align to the right ? What is this TikZ thing ? (I'm a very-beginner) – LimoPanda May 5 at 4:05
• Hello @LimoPanda, if you want to know what TikZ is good for, please have a look at p. 18 of this manual. ;-) – user121799 May 5 at 4:10
• @LimoPanda Sorry for the late reply. What do you want to align to the right? – user156344 May 5 at 4:34
• @marmot I thought it should be pages 18 and 11-12 of that manual – user156344 May 5 at 4:39
• @Mico Sure. I edited my answer. – user156344 May 5 at 14:06

Just for fun: without packages.

\documentclass{article}
\newcounter{pft}
\newcounter{pfft}
\begin{document}
\setcounter{pft}{0}\loop%
\stepcounter{pft}%
\setcounter{pfft}{0}{\noindent$\loop% \stepcounter{pfft}\number\value{pfft}% \ifnum\number\value{pfft}<\number\value{pft}+\repeat$\par}%
\ifnum\number\value{pft}<11\repeat%
\end{document} Or with pgffor, which contains the \foreach command that is used in JouleV's nice answer, and which is loaded by TikZ.

\documentclass{article}
\usepackage{pgffor}
\begin{document}
\foreach \X in {1,...,11}%
{\noindent$\foreach \Y in {1,...,\X}% {\ifnum\Y>1% +% \fi% \Y }$\par}
\end{document}


Since everyone has a bonus...

\documentclass{article}
\newcounter{pft}
\newcounter{pfft}
\newcounter{sum}
\begin{document}
\begin{flushright}
\setcounter{pft}{0}\loop%
\stepcounter{pft}%
\setcounter{pfft}{0}\setcounter{sum}{0}{\noindent$\loop% \stepcounter{pfft}\number\value{pfft}\addtocounter{sum}{\value{pfft}}% \ifnum\number\value{pfft}<\number\value{pft}+\repeat=\number\value{sum}% \ifnum\value{sum}<10\relax\phantom{1}\fi$\par}%
\ifnum\number\value{pft}<11\repeat%
\end{flushright}
\end{document} Of course, you can also make this work with align by using a recursion (which I learned from David Carlisle in the chat, if I remember correctly, but my realization is much more elegant because instead of zz, which is deprecated, I use pft ;-).

\documentclass{article}
\newcounter{pft}
\newcounter{pfft}
\newcounter{sum}
\usepackage{amsmath}
\def\Pft{\stepcounter{pft}\number\value{pft}\addtocounter{sum}{\number\value{pft}}\ifnum\number\value{pft}<\number\value{pfft}%
+\Pft\else%
&=\number\value{sum}\\
\fi}
\def\Pfft{\stepcounter{pfft}\setcounter{pft}{0}\setcounter{sum}{0}\Pft%
\ifnum\number\value{pft}<11\relax%
\Pfft%
\fi}
\begin{document}
\setcounter{pfft}{0}
\begin{align*}
\Pfft
\end{align*}
\end{document} Here's a LuaLaTeX-based solution. The number of rows can be set as the argument of the LaTeX macro \makearray; this macro calls the Lua function make_array, which does most of the work. To make the triangular array right-aligned instead of left-aligned, change \begin{array}{@{}l@{}} to \begin{array}{@{}r@{}}. If you wish to have a bit more space around the + symbols, change tex.sprint ( "{+}" ) to tex.sprint ( "+" ).

% !TEX TS-program = lualatex
\documentclass{article}
\usepackage{luacode} % for 'luacode' environment

%% Lua-side code: Define the Lua function 'make_array'
\begin{luacode}

function make_array ( n )
for i=1,n do
for j=1,i do
tex.sprint ( j )
if j<i then
tex.sprint ( "{+}" )
else
tex.sprint ( "\\\\" )
end
end
end
end

\end{luacode}

%% LaTeX-side code: Define the macro '\makearray'
\newcommand\makearray{%
$\begin{array}{@{}l@{}} \directlua{make_array(#1)} \end{array}$
}

\begin{document}
\makearray{11}
\end{document}


Addendum: Here's a solution which typesets each row's sum along the right-hand edge of the (now rectangular) array. Compared with the solution shown above, it also allows for a bit more space around the + symbols. Observe the use of \toprule and bottomrule: These instruction are optional and may be left off. % !TEX TS-program = lualatex
\documentclass{article}
\usepackage{luacode}  % for '\luaexec' macro
\usepackage{booktabs} % for '\toprule' and '\bottomrule' macros

%% Lua-side code: Define the function 'make_array_with_rowsum'
\luaexec{%

function make_array_with_rowsum ( n )
for i=1,n do
for j=1,i do
tex.sprint ( j )
if j<i then
tex.sprint ( "+" )
else
tex.sprint ( "&{{}={}}&" .. i*(i+1)//2 .. "\\\\" )
end
end
end
end

}

%% LaTeX-side code: Define the macro '\makearray'
\newcommand\makearray{%
\par\noindent
\begingroup
\centering
\setlength\arraycolsep{0pt}
$\begin{array}{lcr} \toprule \luadirect{make_array_with_rowsum(#1)} \bottomrule \end{array}$\par
\endgroup}

\begin{document}
\makearray{16}
\end{document}

\documentclass{article}
\usepackage{multido}
\begin{document}
\noindent$1$
\multido{\iA=2+1}{10}{\\$% \multido{\iB=1+1}{\numexpr\iA-1}{\iB+}\iA$}

\bigskip\noindent$1=1$
\multido{\iA=2+1}{10}{\\$\xdef\Sum{0}% \multido{\iB=1+1}{\numexpr\iA-1}{% \iB+\xdef\Sum{\the\numexpr\Sum+\iB}}\iA=\the\numexpr\Sum+\iA$}

\end{document} The mandatory double expl3 loop:

\documentclass{article}
\usepackage{xparse,array}

\ExplSyntaxOn
\NewDocumentCommand{\triangletab}{sm}
{% #1 = * for totals, #2 = end point
\IfBooleanTF { #1 }
{
\begin{tabular}{@{} l @{} c @{} r @{}}
\int_step_inline:nn { #2 } { \panda_row_total:n { ##1 } \\ }
\end{tabular}
}
{
\begin{tabular}{@{} l @{}}
\int_step_inline:nn { #2 } { \panda_row:n { ##1 } \\ }
\end{tabular}
}
}
\cs_new_protected:Nn \panda_row:n
{
$1 \int_step_inline:nnn { 2 } { #1 } { + ##1 }$
}
\cs_new_protected:Nn \panda_row_total:n
{
\panda_row:n { #1 } & ${}={}$ & $\int_eval:n { (#1)*(#1+1)/2 }$
}
\ExplSyntaxOff

\begin{document}

$\triangletab{1} \qquad \triangletab{3} \qquad \triangletab{11}$

$\triangletab*{1} \qquad \triangletab*{3} \qquad \triangletab*{11}$

\end{document} 