3

How to increase the space between the following two lines?

Output

Here is what I have tried:

\documentclass{beamer}
\usepackage[T1]{fontenc}
%-----
\usepackage{amsmath,amssymb,amsfonts} 
\usepackage{pifont}
\usetheme{Madrid}
\begin{document}
    \begin{frame}
        \centerline{\ding{45} $\mathcal{N}(T)$ is called the null space of $T$.}
        \ding{43} The range of $T$ is given by
    \end{frame}
\end{document}
2

Have you tried adding \vspace{1cm} before \ding{43}? Change value 1cm for your needs ...

See the following mwe

\documentclass{beamer}

\usepackage[T1]{fontenc}

\usepackage{amsmath,amssymb,amsfonts} 
\usepackage{pifont}
\usetheme{Madrid}


\begin{document}
\begin{frame}
  \centerline{\ding{45} $\mathcal{N}(T)$ is called the null space of $T$.}
  \vspace{1cm} % <======================================================
  \ding{43} The range of $T$ is given by
\end{frame}
\end{document}

and its result:

resulting pdf

2

There are two ways: if you are going to use \centerline frequently throughout your presentation, then I suggest to redefine it as:

\renewcommand{\centerline}[1]{\null\hfill#1\hfill\null~\\[2ex]}

The second way is to use ~\ right after \centerline{...}, i.e., \centerline{...}~\\

Output

\documentclass{beamer}
\usepackage[T1]{fontenc}
%-----
\usepackage{amsmath,amssymb,amsfonts} 
\usepackage{pifont}
\usetheme{Madrid}
\renewcommand{\centerline}[1]{\null\hfill#1\hfill\null~\\[2ex]} % Need this!
\begin{document}
    \begin{frame}
        \centerline{\ding{45} $\mathcal{N}(T)$ is called the null space of $T$.}
        % Or just use the following and you don't need to redefine the command:
        % \centerline{\ding{45} $\mathcal{N}(T)$ is called the null space of $T$.}~\\
        \ding{43} The range of $T$ is given by
    \end{frame}
\end{document}

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