# \pagenumbering{roman} prints uppercase roman numbers in report class

I'm writing a report class document. I want some pages at the beginning of the document to be numbered with roman lowercase numbers and the rest with arabic numbers. I used \pagenumbering{roman} and \pagenumbering{arabic} at the desired locations. These codes worked well except that \pagenumbering{roman} prints uppercase roman numbers and not lowercase roman numbers. What's going wrong? (I'm a newbie here and also a non-native english speaker, so please excuse me if my question is not correctly stated.) Thanks!

A MWE (not so 'minimal'; I show the preamble in full in case the problem is there):

\documentclass[twoside,a4paper,11pt]{report}
\usepackage[english,spanish]{babel}
\usepackage{amsmath}
\usepackage{amsfonts}
\usepackage{amsthm}
\usepackage{amssymb}
\usepackage{enumerate}
\usepackage{upgreek}
\usepackage{graphicx}
\usepackage{sidecap}
\usepackage{fullpage}
\usepackage[hypcap,font=small,labelfont=bf,labelsep=period]{caption}
\usepackage{floatrow}
\usepackage{afterpage}
\usepackage{chngcntr}
\usepackage{enumitem}
\usepackage{lscape}
\usepackage{booktabs}
\usepackage{float}
\usepackage{setspace}
\usepackage{rotating}
\usepackage{tabularx}
\usepackage{ragged2e}
\usepackage{natbib}
\usepackage{csquotes}
\usepackage[nottoc]{tocbibind}

\counterwithout{footnote}{chapter}
\newcommand\blankpage{%
\null
\thispagestyle{empty}%
\newpage}
\providecommand\phantomsection{}
\newcommand{\R}{\mathbb{R}}
\newcommand{\N}{\mathbb{N}}
\newcommand{\en}{\rightarrow}
\newcommand{\de}{\colon}
\newcommand{\id}{\textup{id}}

\newtheorem{teo}{Teorema}
\newtheorem{coro}[teo]{Corolario}
\newtheorem{lema}[teo]{Lema}
\newtheorem{prop}[teo]{Proposici\'on}
\newtheorem{conj}[teo]{Conjetura}
\theoremstyle{definition}
\newtheorem{defi}[teo]{Definici\'on}
\newtheorem{ejer}{Ejercicio}
\newtheorem{ejm}{Ejemplo}
\theoremstyle{remark}
\newtheorem{obs}[teo]{Observaci\'on}

\frenchspacing

\begin{document}
\begin{titlepage}
\centering
\vspace*{0.5cm}

A rather long and complex title...

\afterpage{\blankpage}
\end{titlepage}

\afterpage{\blankpage}
\thispagestyle{empty}

\begin{flushright}
\topskip0pt
\vspace*{\fill}

To some special person\\[50pt]

\vspace*{\fill}
\clearpage
\afterpage{\blankpage}

\thispagestyle{empty}
\vspace*{\fill}

Nice quote

\end{flushright}

\vspace*{\fill}
\clearpage

\pagenumbering{roman}
\tableofcontents
\clearpage

\topskip0pt
\vspace*{\fill}
\noindent {\large \bf Acknowledgments}\newline

Text

\vspace*{\fill}\newpage\null\newpage

\pagenumbering{arabic}
\chapter{First chapter}

\end{document}

• Welcome to TeX.SX! Normally \pagenumbering{roman} doesn't do that, unless there is some code changing that behaviour. Please show us a minimal working example (MWE) that demonstrates the issue. – Phelype Oleinik Jul 5 '19 at 17:34
• Hi! I edited the post, adding a mwe. – Guido Jul 5 '19 at 18:19
• Thanks! That helped a lot to find the problem. As a tip for your next question, you could try to reduce the mwe even further by removing packages one by one until you narrow down the issue to the minimum number of packages. For instance, I found the problem by removing the bottom half of the packages, theorem definitions, and custom commands, and then proceeded removing packages until all that was left was babel. From there on a quick look at the documentation showed the solution :-) – Phelype Oleinik Jul 5 '19 at 18:31
• Oh, sorry :S. I will follow your recommendation next time! Thanks again. – Guido Jul 5 '19 at 18:34
• No problem at all, it's just a tip :-) The thing is that most of the times (for me at least) when narrowing down the issue to ask a question here I end up finding the problem myself. Some times it saves you a great deal of trouble :-) – Phelype Oleinik Jul 5 '19 at 18:36

It's not actually an uppercase roman numeral, but a small caps roman numeral. This feature is triggered by the spanish babel. The following is enough to reproduce the issue:

\documentclass{article}
\usepackage[spanish]{babel}
\begin{document}
hello I \makeatletter\@roman\c@page
\end{document}


output:

Section 1.3 Modifiers of the babel manual shows that you can use the lcroman modifier for the spanish language to change that behaviour:

\documentclass{article}
\usepackage[spanish.lcroman]{babel}
\begin{document}
hello I \makeatletter\@roman\c@page
\end{document}


and the output:

Note, however, that the spanish-babel package warns you that lowercase roman numerals are an ortographic error in Spanish:

• Great! Thank you so much!! – Guido Jul 5 '19 at 18:30