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How can I draw hidden Markov model by this way, I don't know how to add the circle.

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Starting from this post, you can just add circle,draw to the nodes in the cells in the columns except for the first and fifth one.

\documentclass[tikz,border=3.14mm]{standalone}
\usepackage{amsmath}
\usetikzlibrary{matrix}
\begin{document}
\begin{tikzpicture}
\matrix[matrix of math nodes,column sep=2em,row
sep=4em,cells={nodes={circle,draw,minimum width=3em,inner sep=0pt}},
column 1/.style={nodes={rectangle,draw=none}},
column 5/.style={nodes={rectangle,draw=none}}] (m) {
\text{Markov process}: &
 X_0 & X_1 & X_2 & \cdots & X_{T-1}\\
\text{Observations}: & 
 \mathcal{O}_0 & \mathcal{O}_1 & \mathcal{O}_2 & \cdots & \mathcal{O}_{T-1}\\
};
\foreach \X in {2,3,4,5}
{\draw[-latex] (m-1-\X) -- (m-1-\the\numexpr\X+1) node[midway,above]{$A$};
\ifnum\X=5
\draw[-latex] (m-1-6) -- (m-2-6) node[pos=0.6,left]{$B$};
\else
\draw[-latex] (m-1-\X) -- (m-2-\X) node[pos=0.6,left]{$B$};
\fi}
\draw[dashed] ([yshift=1ex]m.east) -- ([yshift=1ex]m.east-|m-1-1.east);
\end{tikzpicture}
\end{document}

enter image description here

You can put it in a figure in the usual way. If you really need to use \resizebox to rescale it you need to use an ampersand replacemet.

\documentclass{article}
\usepackage{tikz}
\usepackage{amsmath}
\usetikzlibrary{matrix}
\begin{document}
\begin{figure}
\centering
\resizebox{3in}{!}{\begin{tikzpicture}
 \matrix[matrix of math nodes,column sep=2em,row
  sep=4em,cells={nodes={circle,draw,minimum width=3em,inner sep=0pt}},
  column 1/.style={nodes={rectangle,draw=none}},
  column 5/.style={nodes={rectangle,draw=none}},
  ampersand replacement=\&] (m) {
 \text{Markov process}: \&
  X_0 \& X_1 \& X_2 \& \cdots \& X_{T-1}\\
 \text{Observations}: \& 
  \mathcal{O}_0 \& \mathcal{O}_1 \& \mathcal{O}_2 \& \cdots \& \mathcal{O}_{T-1}\\
 };
 \foreach \X in {2,3,4,5}
 {\draw[-latex] (m-1-\X) -- (m-1-\the\numexpr\X+1) node[midway,above]{$A$};
 \ifnum\X=5
 \draw[-latex] (m-1-6) -- (m-2-6) node[pos=0.6,left]{$B$};
 \else
 \draw[-latex] (m-1-\X) -- (m-2-\X) node[pos=0.6,left]{$B$};
 \fi}
 \draw[dashed] ([yshift=1ex]m.east) -- ([yshift=1ex]m.east-|m-1-1.east);
\end{tikzpicture}}
\caption{A hidden Markov model.}
\label{fig:HiddenMarkov}
\end{figure}
\end{document}
  • thank you very much, could you tell me how can I use these code in \begin{figure} environment? because I want to adjust the size of this figure and name it. – QIAN HAN Jul 6 at 19:18
  • @QIANHAN I added a code that puts it in a figure. – user121799 Jul 6 at 19:23
  • and I use command \resizebox{3in}{!} to adjust size, but it didn't work, please tell me why and how to adjust, thank you. – QIAN HAN Jul 6 at 19:27
  • @QIANHAN I added that as well. You need to use ampersand replacement. – user121799 Jul 6 at 19:32

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