From all the comments to the question and my experience after using them I write up an answer:
If you want to create symlinks to standard directories after the install, do not try to run the install script
install-tl, but rather use the native TeX Live manager
tlmgr path add
will attempt to symlink to standard directories. You need the necessary access rights, so normally you will incorporate root via
To the bonus question:
tlmgr path add, what does it do exactly? It will link the individual executables, man pages and info files into the standard directories.(*) What are the standard directories
tlmgr uses? Find out via
tlmgr option sys_bin
tlmgr option sys_man
tlmgr option sys_info
A word of caution
tlmgr does link many individual files it might be hard to track down broken symlinks later on when you upgrade TeX Live to a newer version. Therefore make sure before upgrading to remove the old symlinks (
tlmgr path remove) then install the new TeX Live and finally to add the symlinks.
(*) The reason why
tlmgr has to link individual files and cannot simply link the directory is that Linux cannot do something like "merge-linking" a directory into another directory.