I noticed that almost all of the MikTeX binaries were updated (looks like they were released today). After backing up my install (if you don't do this before applying updates, you should...), I applied the updates -- right at the end of the process, an error is thrown:
The program can't start because
MSVCP140_CODECVT_IDS.dllis missing from your computer. Try reinstalling the program to fix the problem.
If I exit the update console, and try compiling an MWE, even from the command line, same error. I can replicate this on multiple machines -- so it isn't something 'missing' from any one of them. For completeness, I'm using 64-bit MikTeX, 2.9.
Whats weird is that if you search for this particular 'missing.dll', it doesn't show up at all on Google -- no mention of it whatsoever. Same with Bing...nada.
I haven't tried a 'file by file' update, to see if its one particular binary (since that doesn't always work when all the binaries have been updated), but I might.
In the meantime -- I urge caution. Your results might vary, but unless you have a backup to roll back to, latest mega-update to the MikTeX binaries might bork your install. Completely.
I sent an email to the MikTeX maintainer, letting him know there may be a problem.