I'm preparing for a text with many lines along with their footnotes by adopting \footnotemark, \footnotetext, \par, and \clearpage. Unfortunately, line spacing of the body (not footnote) becomes too prolonged after just a few "normal" pages. Even worse, footnotes of these "prolonged" pages do not appear on their "appropriate" page. After a series of these irregular pages, then a regular body inappropriate line spacing together with the missing footnotes presents. In other words, a line spacing of a body becomes exaggerated (that is, abnormally widened) by pushing their footnotes into the following pages inappropriately.

I have tried to remove this problem by adding \clearpage option. Definitely, it is successful. But I do not suppose that the fundamental problem is solved in this way. It's just a temporary measure because exactly the same phenomena are repeated when I make some changes in the body or footnotes.

I would be most grateful if you kindly give advice for this problem. The following information is added to facilitate your understanding of my hardware and software. Unfortunately, I could not extract the crucial parts of my TeX file. Instead, you can find the TeX file in the following website. You will be able to recognize the problem on PDF page 7 and 8 after typesetting.

The URL was deleted by the author.

OS: MacOS Mojave version 10.14.5 Engine: TeXShop version 4.31 Typeset: XeLaTeX

Many thanks in advance. With metta.

[1]: The URL was deleted by the author.

  • 4
    Please post enough code, from \documentclass to \end{document} that shows the problem so that we can try it; we don't need your full document, just enough to produce at least a normal page and a prolonged one (or two of each?). Aug 8, 2019 at 17:03
  • 2
    What is the reason you have chosen to not use the ordinary \footnote{...} mechanism? Usually, \footnotemark{...} \footnotetext{...} is chosen only when a footnote is placed on a "moving object" like a section heading or caption. Aug 8, 2019 at 17:18
  • Thank you Barbara. Someone told me that \footnote{...} make its footnote ONLY in the page it is located. He pointed out that its characteristic might be related to the problem. Instead, he suggested to use \footnotetext{...} and \footnotemark{...} in order to avoid that problem. However, I have to adhmit that I couldn't grasp how to use these options properly. Aug 8, 2019 at 17:42
  • 1
    I suggest that you try to load the package bigfoot. It often solves problems with different types of footnotes.
    – Sveinung
    Aug 8, 2019 at 20:24
  • 1
    @Sveinung - It turns out that, for the OP's document, executing \frenchspacing in the preamble fully solves the bad-linespacing-and-bad-footnote-placement issue. I don't have a good sense of why this "trick" works, but I suspect the OP has stumbled across a deep-seated bug in either XeTeX or in one of the packages loaded by his/her document.
    – Mico
    Aug 9, 2019 at 16:38

1 Answer 1


Some suggestions :

  • Using \footnote{...} instead of \footnotemark \footnotetext{...} works just fine (91 occurrences).

  • No need for \textbf directives for the \items in the description environment.

  • Please make a habit of creating an all-blank line instead of \par (170+ instances).

  • Last but not least, create a macro called, say, \mysub via


    and replace all 260+ [!!] instances of


    with \mysub{...}. The readability of your code will improve immeasurably.

\usepackage{polyglossia,fontspec,xunicode, polyglossia}  

%preamble for margin setting

\newfontfamily\devanagarifont[Script=Devanagari]{Kohinoor Devanagari}


\usepackage{fontspec, lipsum}

%%%%%Sigla and Symbols


% Left corner
\def\mms{%\hskip 1.1pt
  \vrule width0.3pt height-.17ex depth.8ex
  \vrule width3pt height-.77ex depth.8ex 
  \vrule width-3.3pt
%  \hskip .8pt

% Right corner
\def\mme{%\hskip 1.1pt
  \vrule width-5.1pt %original -3.3
  \vrule width3pt height-.77ex depth.8ex
  \vrule width0.3pt height-.17ex depth.8ex
\hskip 2.5pt






\newcommand{\SrBh}{\textup{\textbf{ŚrBh Taishō univ. in CHOI 2001}}\,}
\newcommand{\choi}{\textup{\textbf{CHOI 2001}}\,}
\newcommand{\LS}{\textup{\textbf{SCHMITHAUSEN 2000}}\,}

\usepackage{wasysym} %This line is related to \astrosun ⊙

% -------------------- settings ----------------
    % number of the first line
    % steps
    % lines are numbered starting from 1 on each page

\markright{Adhyātmavidyā, Draft, Woonsaan \today}

\newcommand\mysub[1]{\textsubscript{\textbf{\{#1\}}}} % <-- new


\Large{I\@. Editorial conventions}

\begin{description}[align=left, leftmargin=3.5cm, style=sameline]

\item[Chonging] \textit{Chonging Canon} 崇寧藏 (宮).
\item[Fangshan] \textit{Fangshan Stone-Carved Canon} 房山石經 (石).
\item[Hongwu]   \textit{Howngu Southern Canon} 洪武南藏.
\item[Jin]     \textit{Jin Canon} 金藏.
\item[Jingshan] \textit{Jingshan Canon} 徑山藏 (明, 徑).
\item[2nd Goryeo] \textit{Second Edition of the Korean Canon} 高麗藏再雕板 (麗).
\item[Puning]   \textit{Puning Canon} 普寧藏 (元, 普).
\item[Qing]    \textit{Qing Canon} 淸藏.
\item[Qisha]       \textit{Qisha Canon} 磧砂藏 (磧).
\item[T]        Takakusu Junjirō and Watanabe Kaikyō, chief eds., \textit{Taishō shinshu daizōkyo}, vol.~30, pp.\ 345a--356a. (Each page contains three segments which are referred as `a', `b', and `c'.)  大正新修大藏經.
\item[Yongle-nan]   \textit{Southern Canon of the Yongle Era} 永樂南藏 (南).
\item[Shōsō-in] \textit{Imperial Manuscript Collection of Shōsō-in} 正倉院 (聖).
\item[Zifu] \textit{Zifu Canon} 資福藏 (宋, 資).
\item[ZC]   \textit{Zhonghua Canon} Editing Bureau ed., `\textit{Zhonghua dazangjing (Hanwen bufen)}', vol.~27, pp.\ 454a--473c. (Each page contains three segments which are referred as `a', `b', and `c'.). 中華大藏經.           


\textsc{\large Critical Edition of the Chinese} 

聞所成地: 內明處

\mysub{T 345a17; ZC 454a2} 本地分中聞所成地第十之一 

\mysub{T 345a18; ZC 454a3} 已說\footnote{說 T. : 記 Qisha, Puning, Southern Canon of Youngle Era. The author adopts the font of the printed Taishō edition as many as possible.} 有心無心地。\footnote{Corresponding passages of Sankrit and Tibetan are included in the previous chapter.} 

云何聞所成地? \sn{0} 謂\footnote{謂 means `namely', `that is to say' and so on. Neither Sanskrit nor Tibetan supports 謂 here. The translator might insert this term to facilitate Chinese readers' understanding.} 

\mysub{ZC 454a4}若略
\mysub{T 345a19}說, 於五明處, 名句文身無\footnote{無 T. : 无 ZC.}量差\mysub{ZC 454a5}別\footnote{名句文身\uline{無量差別} `\uline{Infinite diversities} of a group of names, words, and letters'  corresponds to `\uline{through analyzing} names, words, and letters \uline{elaborately}' \textit{nāma\uline{śah}, pada\uline{śah}, vyañjana\uline{śah}}. The adverbial suffix \cw śaḥ implies the dissolution of a whole entity into many parts (SPEIJER 1998, 186). Furthermore, neither Sanskrit nor Tibetan support `group' 身 at this phrase.}, 覺慧爲\footnote{爲 T. : 為 ZC.}\mysub{T 345a20}先, (1)\footnote{The author adds Arabic numbers to the text when needed.} 聽聞。 (2) 領受。 (3) 讀誦。 (4) 憶念, (5) 又\mysub{ZC 454a6}於依止名身句\mysub{T 345a21}身文身義中, 無倒解\mysub{ZC 454a7}了。 如是名爲聞所成\mysub{T 345a22}地。

何等名五明處? \mysub{ZC 454a8} 謂: (1) 內明處。 (2) 醫方明處。 (3) 因\mysub{T 345a23}明處。 (4) 聲明處。 (5) \mysub{ZC 454a9}工業明處。 

\mysub{T 345a24; ZC 454a10} \sn{1} 云何內明處? 當知略說由四種相: (1) 一、\footnote{The Chinese numerations, 一, 二, 三, 四, seem like Xuanzang's addition for clarification as DELEANU points out (2006, p. 413, n. 14).} \mysub{ZC 454a11}由\footnote{The word `from' 由 well corresponds to the ablative character of Sanskrit suffix \textit{taḥ}.}事\mysub{T 345a25}施設建立相。(2) 二、 由想差別施設\mysub{ZC 454a12}建立相。(3)  三、 由\mysub{T 345a26}攝聖敎\footnote{敎 T. : 教 ZC.}義相。 (4) 四、 由佛敎\mysub{ZC 454a13}所應知處相。

\mysub{T 345a27; ZC 454a14} \sn{1.1} 云何事施設建立相? 謂三種事, 總\footnote{總 T. : 捴 ZC.}攝\mysub{ZC 454a15}一切諸\mysub{T 345a28}佛言敎: (1) 一、素怛纜事。(2) 二、毘\footnote{毘 T. : 毗 ZC.}奈\mysub{ZC 454a16}耶事。(3) 三、摩怛履\mysub{T 345a29}迦事。如是三事, 攝事\mysub{ZC 454a17}分中當廣分別。

\mysub{T 345b1; ZC 454a18} \sn{1.2} 云何想差別施設建立相? 


\mysub{T 345b2; ZC 454a19}句迷惑戲論 住眞\footnote{眞 T. : 真 ZC.}實淨妙 

\mysub{T 345b3} 寂靜性道理 \mysub{ZC 454a20} 假施設現觀 


\mysub{T 345b4; ZC 454a21} 云何句? 謂:\sn{} 

內\footnote{Chinese translatior seems to add `internal' 內 for clarifying the meaning as well as producing a four-syllable phrase. The rhythmical unit is the most widespread in Chinese prose as DELEANU mentions (2006, p. 412, n. 8).}六處: \sn{} (1) 無量境界。(2) 無量方\mysub{ZC 454a22}所。(3) 無量\mysub{T 345b5}時分;

復有三界。\sn{} 謂\footnote{`Moreover' 復有 and `namely' 謂 correspond neither Sanskrit nor Tibetan. These are understood in terms of the rhythmical perspective. Further notes on these two terms will be omitted for preventing too many repetitions.}: (1) 欲界 (2) 色界 (3) \mysub{T 345b2; ZC 454a23}無色界;\footnote{Three translations include common additional terms `world' 世界 which neither Sanskrit nor Tibetan support. Moreover, the second term 中千世界 do not show the number `two' which corresponds to Sanskrit \textit{dvi} and Tibetan \textit{gnyis pa}.}

又有\footnote{Chinse `again' 復有 and Tibetan `moreover' \textit{gzhan yang} agrees well. Apart from these two, Sanskrit \textit{apare} is understood as a pronoun.}\mysub{T 345b6}三界。\sn{} 謂: (1) 小千世界。(2) 中千\mysub{ZC 454b1}世界。(3) 三千大千世界; 

\mysub{T 345b7}復有四衆。謂: \sn{} (1) 在\mysub{ZC 454b2}家衆。(2) 出家衆。(3) 鄔波索迦衆。\mysub{T 345b8}(4) 非人衆;

復\mysub{ZC 454b3}有三受。\sn{}謂: (1) 苦受 (2) 樂受 (3) 不苦不樂受;\footnote{Three items have additional `feeling' 受. Furthermore, the first and second terms are in reverse order.} 

\mysub{T 345b9} \sn{} 復\mysub{ZC 454b4}有三世。謂: (1) 過去世  (2) 未來世 (3) 現在世;\footnote{`Time/period' 世 is repeatedly added at the end of three terms.}

復\mysub{ZC 454b5}有三\mysub{T 345b10}寶。\sn{} 謂: (1) 佛寶 (2) 法寶 (3) 僧寶;

%僧의 표기가 제대로 되지 않는다. Taishō 프린트 버전은 우리나라에서 자주 쓰는 僧이다. 그러나 중화대장경은 다른 폰트로 표기되어 있다. 이것을 함께 표기할 수 있는 폰트가 있을까?  
復有三法。\sn{}\mysub{ZC 454b6}謂: (1) 善法 (2) 不善\mysub{T 345b11}法 (3) 無記法;\footnote{Three items have additional `dharma' 法.}

復有三雜染。\sn{} \mysub{ZC 454b7}謂: (1) 煩惱雜染。\ (2) 業雜染。\mysub{T 345b12} (3) 生雜染;

復有四\mysub{ZC 454b8}聖諦。\sn{} 謂: (1) 苦聖諦。(2) 集聖諦。\mysub{T 345b13} (3) 滅聖諦。(4) 道聖\mysub{ZC 454b9}諦;\footnote{`Truth' 諦 are repeatedly added at the end of each term.}

復有九次第等至。\sn{} 謂: (1) 初靜慮\mysub{T 345b14}等至\mysub{ZC 454b10}。乃至。(9) 滅想受等至;

復有三十七菩提\mysub{ZC 454b11}分\mysub{T 345b15}法。\sn{}謂: (1) 四念住。(2) 四正斷\footnote{斷 T. : 断 ZC.}。(3) 四神足。(4) 五根。\mysub{ZC 454b12}(5) 五力。(7) 七\mysub{T 345b16}覺支。(7) 八道支;\footnote{Each group shows the number of constituents only in Chinese translation.} 

復有四沙門果。\sn{}\mysub{ZC 454b13}謂: (1) 預流果。(2) 一\mysub{T 345b17}來\footnote{來 T. : 来 ZC.} 果。(3) 不還果。(4) 最\footnote{最 T. : 㝡 ZC.}勝阿羅\mysub{ZC 454b14}漢果;

復有衆多勝妙\mysub{T 345b18}功德\footnote{德 T. : 徳 ZC.}。\sn{} 謂: (1) 無量 (2) 解\mysub{ZC 454b15}脫。(3) 勝處 (4) 遍處。\footnote{Sanskrit seems to suggest that the `unlimited' 無量 modifies not only 解脫 but also 勝處 along with 遍處.} (5) 無諍 (6) 願智。(7) 無礙\footnote{礙 T. : 㝵 ZC.}\mysub{T 345b19}解 (8) 六神\mysub{ZC 454b16}通等。

 % (1) 無量과 (2) 解脫을 구분했다.
復有方廣大乘\textemdash\footnote{乘 T. : 乗 ZC.; Chinese has `mahāyāna' 大乘 which is supported by neither Sanskrit nor Tibetan. However, the translator might be aware of the usage of \textit{vaipulya}. The term can be used to designate Mahāyāna scriptures along with its original meaning.} \sn{}

五事。\sn{}謂: (1) 相 (2) 名 (3) 分\mysub{T 345b20; ZC 454b17}別 (4) 眞如 (5) 正智;

復有二空性。\sn{}謂: (1) 補特伽\mysub{ZC 454b18}羅空性。\mysub{T 345b21}及\footnote{及 \ ‘and’ \ is supported by both Sanskrit and Tibetan. Besides, it produces the most favored four-syllable system.} (2) 法空性;

復有二無我性。\footnote{Neither Sanskrit nor Tibetan support 性 `nature.' The translator seems to add it repeatedly.} \sn{} 謂:\mysub{ZC 454b19} (1) 補特伽羅無我\mysub{T 345b22} 性。及 (2) 法無我性;

復有\mysub{ZC 454b20}遠離二邊處中觀行。\sn{}\mysub{T 345b23}謂: (1) 離增\footnote{增 T. : 増 ZC.} 益邊。(2) 離\mysub{ZC 454b21}損減\footnote{減 : 滅 Puning, Jingshan, Qisha, Southern Canon of the Youngle Era, Qing.}邊;

 %益을 받쳐주지 못한다! 增
 復有四種眞實。\sn{}謂: \mysub{T 345b24} (1) 世間所成\mysub{ZC 454b22} 眞實。(2) 道理所成眞實\footnote{SCHMITHAUSEN reconstructs \textit{yuktiprasiddhaṃ} based on \textit{rigs pa'i grags pa dang} in addition to 道理所成眞實.}。(3) 煩惱障淨智\mysub{T 345b25}所\mysub{ZC 454b23}行眞實。(4) 所知障淨智所行眞實;

 復有\mysub{ZC 454c1}四尋\mysub{T 345b26}思。\sn{} 謂: (1) 名尋思。(2) 事尋思。(3) 自性假立\mysub{ZC 454c2}尋思。(4) 差別假\mysub{T 345b27}立尋思;

 復有四如實遍\sn{}\mysub{ZC 454c3}智。謂: (1) 名尋思所引如\mysub{T 345b28}實遍智。(2) 事尋思\mysub{ZC 454c4}所引如實遍智。(3) 自性假立尋\mysub{T 345b29}思所引\mysub{ZC 454c5}如實遍智。(4) 差別假立尋思所引如實\mysub{T 345c1; ZC 454c6}遍智;\footnote{The translator seems to have intentionally added 如實遍智 to the second, third, and fourth items to facilitate clear understanding. Its Sanskrit equivalent, \textit{yathābhūta-parijñānaṃ}, commonly belongs to them without repetition.}

復有三種自性。\sn{}謂: (1) 遍計所執自\mysub{ZC 454c7}性。(2) 依他\mysub{T 345c2}起自性。(3) 圓成實自性;\footnote{Sanskrit and Tibetan items are in reverse order. Furthermore, each item has the word `nature' 自性 only in Chinese.}

復有三\mysub{ZC 454c8}無性性。\sn{}謂: (1) 相無\mysub{T 345c3}性性。(2) 生無性性。(3) 勝義\mysub{ZC 454c9}無性性;

 復有五相大菩\mysub{T 345c4}提。\sn{}謂: (1) 自性故。\mysub{ZC 454c10}(2) 功能故。(3) 方便故。(4) 轉故。(5) 還故;

復\mysub{T 345c5}有五種\mysub{ZC 454c11}大乘:\sn{} 一、種子。二、趣入。三、次第。四、正\mysub{T 345c6}行。\mysub{ZC 454c12}五、正行果;

(1) 最初發心。\footnotemark \sn{}(2) 悲愍有情。(3) 波羅\mysub{ZC 454c13}蜜\mysub{T 345c7}多。 (4) 攝衆生事。\footnotetext{Chinese does not include any phrase corresponding to \textit{tathā}.} \footnotemark 自他相續成熟;

\footnotetext{Sanskrit \textit{saṃgrahavastubhiḥ} does not support 衆生 in Chinese. However, this addition seems appropriate when we take the existence of the `chapter on the [four] bases for gathering [students]' \textit{saṃgrahavastupaṭala} in the bodhisattvabhūmi into consideration.} 
 復有\mysub{ZC 454c14}五無量\mysub{T 345c8}想。\sn{}謂: (1) 有情界無量想。(2) 世界無\mysub{ZC 454c15}量想。(3) 法界無量\mysub{T 345c9}想。(4) 所調伏界無量想。\mysub{ZC 454c16}(5) 調伏方便界無量想;\footnote{Each term has `immeasurable notion' 無量想 only in Chinese.}

  復\mysub{T 345c10} 有眞實義隨\mysub{ZC 454c17}至。\sn{}\ 謂: (1) 於一切無量法中。遍隨\mysub{T 345c11}至眞如\mysub{ZC 454c18}及 (2) 於彼智。復有不思議威德, 勝解,\footnotemark \ 無\mysub{T 345c12; ZC 454c19}障礙智;\footnotetext{SCHMITHAUSEN(2000, p. 249, n. 16) points out that 勝解 which is rendered as \textit{adhmukti} is problematic. Instead, he suggests \textit{vimukti} which usually corresponds to 解脫.}  

(1) 三十二大士夫相。\sn{} (2) 八十種隨\mysub{ZC 454c20}形相。(3) 四\mysub{T 345c13}種一切相淸\footnote{淸 T.: 清 ZC.}淨。(4) 十力 (5) 四無所\mysub{ZC 454c21}畏。(6) 三念住 (7) 三不\mysub{T 345c14}護。(8) 大悲 (9) 無忘失法。(10) 拔\mysub{ZC 454c22}除習氣 (11) 一切相妙智等。\footnote{Neither Sanskrit nor Tibetan supports 等 `and so on.'} 

\mysub{T 345c15}如是諸句。略\mysub{ZC 454c23}唯\footnotemark 二句。\sn{}謂: (1) 聲聞乘中所說句。及\mysub{T 345c16} (2) 大乘\mysub{ZC 455a1}中所說句。

\footnotetext{唯 T. : 惟 ZC. Neither Sanskrit nor Tibetan supports `only'.}
\mysub{T 345c17; ZC 455a2}云何迷惑。\footnote{亂心 is adapted for the same term in a passage of the SacAcBh. 心亂不亂建立者。謂四顚倒顚倒其心。名爲亂心 (T30, no. 1579, p. 344c26-27)} \sn{}謂四顚\footnote{顚 T. : 顛 ZC.}倒。一、於無常計常\mysub{ZC 455a3}顚倒。\mysub{T 345c18}二、於苦計樂顚倒。三、於不淨計\mysub{ZC 455a4}淨顚倒。四、\mysub{T 345c19}於無我計我顚倒。\footnote{Each topic has `perversion’ \ 顚倒 only in Chinese.}

\mysub{T 345c20; ZC 455a5}云何戲論。\sn{}謂: (1) 一切煩惱及 (2) 雜煩惱諸\footnote{Chinese translation adopts 一切 and 諸. These two expressions mean `all,' `whole,' `entire' and so on. On the other hand, Sanskrit and Tibetan take just plural form.}\mysub{ZC 455a6}蘊。

 %중화대장경에 "뇌"는 폰트가 없다.
云何\mysub{T 345c21}住。\sn{}謂: (1) 四識住或 (2) 七識住

\mysub{T 345c22; ZC 455a7}云何眞實。\sn{}謂: (1) 眞如及 (2) 四聖諦 

\mysub{T 345c23; ZC 455a8}云何淨。\sn{}謂三淸淨性: 一、自體淸淨性。\mysub{ZC 455a9}二、境界\mysub{T 345c24}淸淨性。三、分位淸淨性

\mysub{T 345c25; ZC 455a10}云何妙。\sn{} \ 謂: 佛法僧寶\footnote{Only Chinese translation explicitly enumerates the contents of three jewels. Neither \textit{trīṇi ratnāni} not \textit{dkon mchog gsum} does.}名最微妙。墮最\mysub{ZC 455a11}第一施\mysub{T 345c26}設中故 

\mysub{T 345c27; ZC 455a12}云何寂靜。\sn{}謂: 從善法欲。乃至。一切菩\mysub{ZC 455a13}提分\mysub{T 345c28}法。及所得\footnote{所得 `acquired' seems to be inserted to clarify meaning. Neither \textit{saphalāḥ} nor \textit{'bras bu dang bcas pa} supports the phrase.}果。皆名寂靜 

\mysub{T 345c29; ZC 455a14}云何性。\sn{}謂: 諸法體相。(1) 若自相。(2) 若共相。\mysub{ZC 455a15}(3) 若假立\mysub{T 346a1}相。(4) 若因相。(5) 若果相等\footnote{Neither Sanskrit nor Tibetan support `and so on' 等.} 

\mysub{T 346a2; ZC 455a16}云何道理。\sn{}謂: (1) 諸\footnote{Neither Sanskrit nor Tibetan support `all' 諸.}緣\footnote{緣 T. : 縁 ZC.}起及 (2) 四道理 

\mysub{T 346a3; ZC 455a17}云何假施設。\sn{}謂: (1) 於唯法。假立補特伽\mysub{ZC 455a18}羅。及\mysub{T 346a4}(2) 於唯相。假立諸\footnote{Neither Sanskrit nor Tibetan support the `entire' 諸 grammatically.}法 

\mysub{T 346a5; ZC 455a19}云何現觀。\sn{} 謂: 六\footnote{六 T., ZC. : 六種 Chongin, Zifu, Puning, Jingshan, Fangshan, Qisha, Southern Canon of the Yongle Era, Qing}現觀。如有尋有伺地\mysub{ZC 455a20} 已說。 

\mysub{T 346a6}復次嗢拕南曰\sn{1.2.2}  

\mysub{T 346a7; ZC 455a21}方所位分別 作執持增減\footnote{Neither Sanskrit nor Tibetan support `decrease' 減 in this verse.} 

\mysub{T 346a8} 冥言所覺上 \mysub{ZC 455a22} 遠離轉藏護\footnote{藏 T. : 蔵 ZC.} 


\mysub{T 346a9; ZC 455a23}云何方所。\sn{}謂\footnote{Neither Sanskrit nor Tibetan support `that is to say' 謂 in this paragraph.}: 色蘊 

\mysub{T 346a10; ZC 455b1}云何位。\sn{}謂: 受蘊 

\mysub{T 346a11; ZC 455b2}云何分別。\sn{}謂: 想蘊 

\mysub{T 346a12; ZC 455b3}云何作。\sn{}謂: 行蘊 

\mysub{T 346a13; ZC 455b4}云何執持。\sn{}謂: 識蘊 

\mysub{T 346a14; ZC 455b5}云何增。\sn{}謂 有二種: 一、煩惱增。二、業增。

\mysub{ZC 455b6}如增\mysub{T 346a15}有二種。\sn{}當知減亦爾 

\mysub{T 346a16; ZC 455b7}云何冥。\sn{}謂: (1) 無明及 (2) 疑 

\mysub{T 346a17; ZC 455b8}云何言。\sn{}謂: 諸如來\footnote{Only Chinese translation has 如來 which corresponds to \textit{buddha}.}十二分敎。說名爲言。

云何\mysub{T 346a18; ZC 455b9}所覺。\sn{}謂: 彼彼言音\footnote{Neither Sanskrit nor Tibetan support 言音.} 所說之義。名\mysub{ZC 455b10}爲所覺 

\mysub{T 346a19; ZC 455b11}云何上。\sn{}謂: 四沙門果 

\mysub{T 346a20; ZC 455b12}云何遠離。\sn{}謂五種遠離: 一、惡行遠離。\mysub{ZC 455b13} 二、欲遠\mysub{T 346a21}離。三、資具遠離。四、憒鬧遠離。\mysub{ZC 455b14}五、煩惱遠離

\mysub{T 346a22; ZC 455b15}云何轉。\sn{}謂: 三界五趣 

\mysub{T 346a23; ZC 455b16}云何藏護。\sn{}謂: (1) 追戀過去。(2) 希慕未來。(3) 耽\footnote{耽 T. : 躭 ZC.}\mysub{ZC 455b17}著\footnote{著 T. : 着 ZC.}現\mysub{T 346a24; ZC 455b15}在。


\mysub{T 346a25; ZC 455b18}思擇與現行 睡眠及相屬\footnote{屬 T. : 属 ZC.}  

\mysub{T 346a26}諸相攝相應 \mysub{ZC 455b19} 說任\footnote{任 T., ZC. : 住 Puning, Jingshan. Qisha, Southern Canon of the Yongle Era, Qing}持次第

\mysub{T 346a27; ZC 455b20}云何思擇? \sn{}謂: 




四\mysub{ZC 455b21}句\footnote{Not Sanskrit but Tibetan support `word' 句 for this term.}。\sn{}

無\mysub{T 346a28}事句\footnote{Neither Sanskrit nor Tibetan support `word' 句 for this term.}。\sn{} 

復有\footnote{Neither Sanskrit nor Tibetan support `furthermore there are' 復有. The phrase seems to be inserted to divide paragraphs.} \sn{} 有色法\footnote{Each term of Chinese translation has `dharma' 法.}, 無色法。 

有見\mysub{ZC 455b22}法, \sn{}無見法。 

有\mysub{T 346a29}對法, \sn{}無對法。

有漏法, \sn{}無\mysub{ZC 455b23}漏法 

有爲法, \sn{}無爲法。

\mysub{T 346b1}有諍法, \sn{}無諍法。

\mysub{ZC 455c1}有味著法, \sn{}無味著法。

依耽嗜\mysub{T 346b2}法, \sn{} 依出\mysub{ZC 455c2}離法。

世間法, \sn{}出世間法。

有繋屬法, \sn{}無\footnote{無 Zifu, Qisha, Puning, Southern Canon of the Yongle Era, Jingshan, Qing, T.: 不 ZC.} \mysub{T 346b3; ZC 455c3}繋屬法。

内法, \sn{}外法。

麁法, \sn{}細法。

劣法, \sn{}勝\mysub{ZC 455c4}法。

遠法, \sn{}\mysub{T 346b4}近法。

有所緣法, \sn{} 無所緣法 

相\mysub{ZC 455c5}應法, \sn{}不相應法 

\mysub{T 346b5}有行法, \sn{} 無行法 

有依\mysub{ZC 455c6}法, \sn{}無依法。

因法, \sn{}非因法 

\mysub{T 346b6}果法, \sn{}非果法 

\mysub{ZC 455c7}異熟法, \sn{}非異熟法 

有因法, \sn{}非有\mysub{T 346b7}因法。

\mysub{ZC 455c8}有果法, \sn{}非有果法。

有異熟法, \sn{}非有異\mysub{ZC 455c9}熟\mysub{T 346b8}法。

有執受法, \sn{}無執受法\footnote{`Dharma which has appropriation' 有執受法 and `dharma which does not have appropriation' 無執受法 are understood as bahuvrīhi compounds. However, neither Sanskrit \textit{upāttānupāttaḥ} nor Tibetan \textit{zin pa rnams dang| ma zin pa rnams dang|} supports bahuvrīhi. Rather, `appropriated dharma' 所執受法 and 'not appropriated dharma' 非所執受法 might be better alternatives. YOKOYAMA(1997, 81) shows that Skt. \textit{upātta} and Tib. \textit{zin pa} were rendered as 有執受, 執受, and 所執. Similarly, 非執受, 不受, 不執受, 無執受 were adopted to translate Skt. \textit{anupātta} and Tib. \textit{ma zin pa} (YOKOYAMA 1997, 19).} 

大種造法, \sn{}\mysub{ZC 455c10}非大種造\mysub{T 346b9}法。

同分法, \sn{}彼同分法 

有上\mysub{ZC 455c11}法, \sn{}無上法。

又有\footnote{Neither Sanskrit nor Tibetan support `furthermore there are' 又有. The phrase seems to be inserted to divide paragraphs.}過\mysub{T 346b10}去法, \sn{}未來法, 現在\mysub{ZC 455c12}法。

善法, \sn{} 不善法, 無記法。

欲\mysub{T 346b11}繋法, \sn{}色繋\mysub{ZC 455c13}法, 無色繋法 

學法, \sn{}無學法, 非學非\mysub{T 346b12}無\mysub{ZC 455c14}學法。 

見所斷法, \sn{}修所斷法, 無斷法 

又\mysub{ZC 455c15}有\footnote{Neither Sanskrit nor Tibetan support `furthermore there are' 又有. The phrase seems to be inserted to divide paragraphs.}四\mysub{T 346b13}緣。謂: \sn{}(1) 因緣。(2) 等無間緣。(3) 所緣緣。(4) 增\mysub{ZC 455c16}上緣。

又有\footnote{Neither Sanskrit nor Tibetan support `furthermore there are' 又有. The phrase seems to be inserted to divide paragraphs.}\mysub{T 346b14}四依: \sn{} 一、法是依。非補特伽\mysub{ZC 455c17}羅。二、義是依。非\mysub{T 346b15}文。三、了義經是依。非\mysub{ZC 455c18}不了義。四、智是依。非\mysub{T 346b16}識。

又有\footnote{Neither Sanskrit nor Tibetan support `furthermore there are' 又有. The phrase seems to be inserted to divide paragraphs.}\sn{}四無量\mysub{ZC 455c19}法 



四\mysub{T 346b17}神足法。\sn{}

五\mysub{ZC 455c20}根法 \sn{} 

五力法 \sn{} 

七覺支法 \sn{} 

八支聖道\mysub{T 346b18}法 \sn{} 

\mysub{ZC 455c21}四行跡法\footnote{Skt. \textit{catasṛbhiḥ pratisaṃvidbhiḥ} and Tib. \textit{so so yang dag par rig pa bzhi po} correspond to 四無礙解 instead of 四行跡法 (YOKOYAMA 1997, 877). For example, the previous paragraph( shows Skt. \textit{pratisaṃvidaḥ} is rendered into Tib. \textit{so so yang dag par rig pa} and Chi. 無礙解. Furthermore, Skt. \textit{pratipad} and Tib. \textit{lam} is rendered as 行跡 (YOKOYAMA 1996, 196).} \sn{}

%이 번역 오류? 에 대해서는 나중에 좀 더 논해야 할 것 같다.
四法跡法。\footnote{Tib. \textit{chos kyi gnas bzhi} corresponds to Chi. 四法跡法 (YOKOYAMA 1997, 448). However, Skt. \textit{dharmapada} is rendered as Tib. \textit{chos kyi tshig} and Chi. 句法, 法句 (YOKOYAMA 1997, 142) instead of \textit{chos kyi gnas} and 法跡.}


%이 번역 오류? 에 대해서는 나중에 좀 더 논해야 할 것 같다.
奢摩他法。\sn{}毘鉢\mysub{ZC 455c22}舍那\mysub{T 346b19}法。

增上戒法。\sn{}增上心法。增上慧\mysub{ZC 455c23}法。\footnote{Chinese translation corresponds to neither Skt. \textit{śikṣā} nor Tib. {bslab pa rnams dang}}

解脫法。 \sn{} \mysub{T 346b20}勝處法。遍處法。如是等法。\mysub{ZC 456a1}無量無邊。應當\mysub{T 346b21}思擇。\footnote{Neither Sanskrit nor Tibetan supports 如是等法。無量無邊。應當思擇。.} 

%\footnote{`Dharma' 法 should be removed. Skt. \textit{vimokṣābhivayatana} and Tib. \textit{rnam par thar pa dang zil gyis non pa\textquotesingle i skye mched} is rendered into 解脫勝處 (YOKOYAMA 1997, 255).}
\mysub{T 346b22; ZC 456a2}云何現行。謂: \sn{}諸\footnote{Neither Sanskrit nor Tibetan support `all' 諸.}煩惱纏。\footnote{DELEANU(2006, p.506, fn.108) translates \textit{kleśaparyavasthānaṃ} into `the state of being possessed by defilements.' Whereas Tib. \textit{nyon mongs pas kun nas dkris pa} and Chi. 煩惱纏 are rendered into `[state of] being enwrapped[/ensnared].'} 

\mysub{T 346b23; ZC 456a3}云何睡眠。謂: \sn{}諸\footnote{Neither Sanskrit nor Tibetan support `all' 諸.}煩惱隨眠。

\mysub{T 346b24; ZC 456a4}云何相屬。\sn{} 

謂:\sn{} 内\footnote{Sanskrit \textit{adhyātma} supports Chinese `internal' 內.}六處\footnote{Neither Tibetan nor Chinese are aware of the genitive case of Sanskrit sentence.}。於一身中。當知\mysub{ZC 456a5}展\footnote{展 T. : 属 ZC.}轉\footnote{Neither Sanskrit nor Tibetan support 展轉.}\mysub{T 346b25}互%\footnote{互 T. : 㸦 ZC.}
相繋屬\footnote{Both 相屬 and 繋屬 commonly correspond to Skt. {saṃbandha} and Tib. \textit{\textquotesingle brel pa} at the same time. The same holds for the following two cases.}。

 %Yumincho 폰트가 못 받쳐주고 있다.
又\sn{}若此法能引彼法。\mysub{ZC 456a6}當知此彼互\mysub{T 346b26}相繫屬。

又\sn{}諸\footnote{Neither Sanskrit not Tibetan support 諸.} 根境。當知\mysub{ZC 456a7}能取所取互相繫屬\footnote{Sanskrit \textit{bhāvena} corresponds to Tibetan \textit{tshul gyis} and Chinese 互相 respectively. According to YOKOYAMA(1997, 235), Sanskrit \textit{yogena} is frequently rendered into Tibetan \textit{tshul gyis} and Chinese 方便.} 

\mysub{T 346b27; ZC 456a8} \sn{} 云何攝。謂: 十六種攝。

一、\sn{}界攝\footnote{Skt. \textit{dhātusaṃgrahaḥ}; Tib. \textit{\uline{rgyu bsdu ba} dang}; Chi. 一\uline{界攝}.}。

二、\sn{}相攝。\mysub{ZC 456a9} 

三、\sn{}種類\mysub{T 346b28}攝。



六、\sn{}\mysub{ZC 456a10}時攝。

七、\sn{}方攝。\mysub{T 346b29} 



十、\sn{}\mysub{ZC 456a11}勝義攝。


十\mysub{T 346c1}二、\sn{}界攝\footnote{Skt. \textit{dhātusaṃgrahaḥ}; Tib. \textit{\uline{khams bsdu ba} dang}; Chi. 十二\uline{界攝}.}。

十三、\sn{}處\mysub{ZC 456a12}攝。


十五、\sn{}處非\footnote{非 T., ZC. : 攝 Puning, Jingshan, Zifu, Qisha, Southern Canon of the Yongle Era, Qing}\mysub{T 346c2}處攝。

十六、\sn{}\mysub{ZC 456a13}根攝 

\mysub{T 346c3; ZC 456a14}云何相應。\sn{}當知此相略有\footnote{Neither Sanskrit nor Tibetan supports 相略有 in Chinese.}五種。

一、與\mysub{ZC 456a15}他性\mysub{T 346c4}相應非自性。\sn{} 

二、\sn{}於他性中。\footnote{Skt. \textit{saṃprayoge}; Tib. \textit{mtshungs par ldan pa} are rendered into 於...中.}與不\mysub{ZC 456a16}相違相應\mysub{T 346c5}非相違。

三、\sn{}於不相違中軟中上品與軟\mysub{ZC 456a17}中上\mysub{T 346c6}品自相應非餘品。

\mysub{ZC 456a18}四、\sn{}於軟中上品中。同時\mysub{T 346c7}相應非異時。 

\mysub{ZC 456a19}五、\sn{}於同時中。同地相應非異\mysub{T 346c8}地  

\mysub{T 346c9; ZC 456a20}云何說。\sn{}謂: 四種言說。一、見言說。二、聞\mysub{ZC 456a21}言說。三、\mysub{T 346c10}覺言說。四、知言說

\mysub{T 346c11; ZC 456a22}云何任\footnote{任 T. : 住 Puning, Jingshan.} 持。\sn{}謂: 四食。一、段食。二、觸食。三、\mysub{ZC 456a23}意思\mysub{T 346c12}食。四、識食 

\mysub{T 346c13; ZC 456b1}云何次第。\sn{}謂: 六種次第。


\mysub{ZC 456b2}二、\sn{}成所\mysub{T 346c14}作次第。


四、\sn{}生起\mysub{ZC 456b3}次第。

五、\sn{}現觀次\mysub{T 346c15}第。


\mysub{T 346c16; ZC 456b4}復次嗢拕南曰。\sn{1.2.4}  

\mysub{T 346c17; ZC 456b5}所作及所緣 \ 亦瑜伽止觀 

\mysub{T 346c18}作意與敎授 \mysub{ZC 456b6} 德菩提聖敎 



  • 1
    Oh, I forgot to note that the line spacing issues on p. 8 of the compiled seem to be related primarily to the on-again-off-again use of the verse environment.
    – Mico
    Aug 8, 2019 at 20:42
  • 1
    In case you're wondering why I deleted all comments from the text: This was done primarily to stay below the 30,000 character limit per posting. (I think my posting came in at 29,950 characters...)
    – Mico
    Aug 8, 2019 at 20:49
  • 1
    Unbelievable! I would like to express my deep appreciation for your help along with detailed instruction! I will "study" what you taught from now on. As you see, the <verse> environment is far from problematic. Presenting verse in a different format is definitely acceptable. Thank you very much again and again! Aug 8, 2019 at 21:08
  • 1
    @WoonsaanSeok - The exaggerated line spacing and incorrect placement of the footnotes may due to a deep-seated bug in either XeTeX or one of the packages employed by your document. I'm certainly not claiming that the following is an all-encompassing cure, but inserting the instruction \frenchspacing in the preamble seems to solve the immediate issue on p. 14. In case you're curious: By default, TeX inserts a bit of extra whitespace after . (period) symbols; \frenchspacing nixes that, meaning that no extra space is inserted after the abbreviations Skt. , Tib. , and Chi. .
    – Mico
    Aug 9, 2019 at 16:12
  • 1
    I found a clue to the problem. The issue of line-spacing seems to be cured when I insert "\raggedbottom" option to the preamble. In other words, I do not find any irregular line-spacing in the whole pages. However, some footnotes appear in the wrong pages as the previous case. This is not cured by adopting "footmisc" package with "bottom" option. Thank you very much again for your help. With metta. Aug 10, 2019 at 21:15

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