I'm currently writing a paper and my supervisor has given me specific citation rules but no template.

One of these rules is:

  1. Citation numbers are in superscript in the text but at the bottom of the page in normal script and in parentheses.

Here is my minimal working example:

\documentclass[ngerman, 12pt,a4paper]{article}

\usepackage[ngerman]{babel}     % Language specification

\usepackage[T1]{fontenc}        % Required to output umlauts in a PDF

% bibliography and citation management

\usepackage[backend=biber, style=verbose]{biblatex} 


        Title                    = {Die Entwicklung des Judeneids},
        Author                   = {Volker Zimmermann},
        Publisher                = {Peter Lang},
        Year                     = {1973},
        Series                   = {Europäische Hochschulschriften. Reihe I. Deutsche Literatur und Germanistik},
        number                   = {56},

        Location                 = {Frankfurt am Main},
        Subtitle                 = {Untersuchungen und Texte zur rechtlichen und sozialen Stellung der Juden im Mittelalter}

    Some text\footcite{zimmermann1973judeneid}  



It now looks like

It now looks like

It should look like

It should look like

Thank you very much for any help and suggestions on how to manage the problems!

Comment: this is an edited version of the original question, this is why I let the numbering of the problem in, even when there is only 1. since the posted answer tackles 1. The previous question is separated into two threads.

  • How do citations interact with normal footnotes? What happens if you cite the same work twice (on the same page, on different pages)?
    – moewe
    Commented Sep 8, 2019 at 11:48
  • 3
    I should also mention that on this site it is usually strongly preferred to ask about only one thing per question. Since you already separated out four sub-questions it would have been nicer to ask them separately, that way people with similar questions can benefit from the answers more easily and you don't risk scaring away people who know only answers to some of your sub-questions. See also tex.meta.stackexchange.com/q/7425/35864
    – moewe
    Commented Sep 8, 2019 at 11:52
  • @moewe This is indeed a good question, since the \footnote{} command should behave the same as stated in my problem 1. They are counted like the \footcite{}-commands with superscript numbers on the bottomof the page. With the verbose-style I get the short-title when reciting an item which is fine (same on every page). I didn't know about the custom to only ask one question at a time, I'm sorry for that. Should I split the thread? Thanks for your fast answers.
    – Thomas
    Commented Sep 8, 2019 at 12:30
  • So they are simply normal footnotes? That would make things a lot easier.
    – moewe
    Commented Sep 8, 2019 at 12:31
  • How would it be easier? I'm afraid I can't follow.
    – Thomas
    Commented Sep 8, 2019 at 12:34

1 Answer 1


As discussed in the comments I will only tackle issue 1 for now. Since this issue is only about footnotes and not really about biblatex at all, the MWE can be simplified quite a bit.

In the standard classes the command \@makefntext can be redefined to modify the output of footnotes. Its standard definition in article.cls is

    \parindent 1em%
    \hb@[email protected]{\hss\@makefnmark}#1}

where \@makefnmark typesets the exact same footnote mark that \footnote{...} produces in the text and is defined as


Since the footnote mark in the text should remain as is, we don't redefine \@makefnmark directly, instead we use \@thefnmark and redefine the marker in \@makefntext.

\documentclass[ngerman,12pt, a4paper]{article}
\usepackage[backend=biber, style=verbose]{biblatex}


    \parindent 1em%
    \hb@[email protected]{\hss(\normalfont\@thefnmark)} #1}

\null\vfill % just to skip some space in the example
Some text\autocite{sigfridsson}


Footnote with number in parentheses.

  • It works like a charm, thank you very much!
    – Thomas
    Commented Sep 8, 2019 at 22:28
  • Actually, I was thinking long ago about a similar layout, but where the footnote is abridged as much as possible – only first author, abbreviated journal names, no pages, no doi, and so on, but the references still list the full citation with all the omitted stuff. I found no good way of doing so, even if there are some pointers like maxnames, see khirevich.com/latex/bibliography. Commented Sep 8, 2019 at 22:34
  • @OlegLobachev Producing a reduced reference in the footnote is possible, you just need to do some work to tell biblatex exactly what you would like to see in the footnote. Depending on what exactly one has in mind for the footnote setup (by which I mean: How do reference footnotes interact with normal footnotes? What happens if an entry is cited twice on the same page or multiple times on multiple, different pages? In case references can appear out of order on a page, do they need to be 'sorted' in the footnotes?), that would be the tricky bit.
    – moewe
    Commented Sep 9, 2019 at 5:15
  • My actual idea was to use sidenotes from tufteLaTex (or, basically, marginpar's), so indexing should not be an issue. I'd need to dig out biblatex the next time I am adventurous, because for now bibtex + natbib worked like a charm for anything (except that). Commented Sep 9, 2019 at 18:27

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