3

I am struggling with multicolumn. What I want is equal spacing between the three columns. Without multicolumn, there is not enough space because of the Panel rows. With multicolumn, it just Looks bad. Does anyone know how I could handle this? I guess the first column just has to move a bit to the right that the table Looks at least decent...

    \documentclass[a4paper, 12pt]{article}
\DeclareUnicodeCharacter{FB01}{fi}
\DeclareUnicodeCharacter{FB02}{fl}
%\usepackage[space]{grffile}
\usepackage{apacite}
\usepackage{makecell}
\usepackage{afterpage}
\usepackage{dblfloatfix}
\usepackage[referable]{threeparttablex}
\usepackage[paper=portrait,pagesize]{typearea}
\usepackage{mleftright}
\usepackage{lscape}
\usepackage{a4wide}
\usepackage[T1]{fontenc}
\usepackage[utf8]{inputenc}
\usepackage[onehalfspacing]{setspace}
\usepackage{float, afterpage, rotating, graphicx}
\usepackage[dvipsnames]{xcolor}
\usepackage{tikz, epstopdf,pgfplots}
\usepackage{longtable, booktabs, tabularx}
\usepackage{fancyvrb, moreverb, relsize}
\usepackage{eurosym, calc, chngcntr}
\usepackage{amsmath, amssymb, amsfonts, amsthm, bm}
\usepackage{mathtools}
\DeclareMathOperator*{\argmin}{arg\,min}
\DeclareMathOperator*{\argmax}{arg\,max}
\usepackage[labelfont={bf}, skip=5pt]{caption}
\usepackage{mdwlist}
\usepackage{tabularx, booktabs}
\newcolumntype{C}{>{\centering\arraybackslash}X}
\usepackage{xfrac}
\usepackage{setspace,geometry}
\usepackage{xcolor}
\usepackage{lmodern}
\usepackage{upgreek}
\usepackage{afterpage}
\usepackage{wrapfig}
\usepackage{pdflscape}
\usepackage{multirow, booktabs, makecell, caption}
\usepackage{fancyhdr}
\usepackage[toc]{glossaries}
\usepackage{subcaption}
\usepackage{lipsum}  
\usepackage{amsmath}
\usepackage{amssymb}
\usepackage{eurosym}
\usepackage{amsfonts}
\usepackage{booktabs}
\usepackage{abstract}
\usepackage{dcolumn}
\usepackage{graphicx}
\usepackage[hyphens]{url}
\usepackage{acronym}
\usepackage[english]{babel}
\usepackage[round, sort&compress]{natbib} %sort&compress orders in text citation automatically
\usepackage{pgfplots}
\usepackage{threeparttable}
\usepackage{siunitx} %setze S in Tabelle, um nach dem Punkt auszurichten
\usepackage[export]{adjustbox}
\usepackage{etoolbox}
\usepackage[hyperfootnotes=false]{hyperref}
\usepackage{footnotebackref}
\usepackage{appendix}
\usepackage[bottom,hang,flushmargin]{footmisc} %footnotes always appear on bottom and not end of text on single page
\geometry{a4paper, top=30mm, left=30mm, right=30mm, bottom=30mm,headsep=10mm, footskip=12mm}

%try to prevent widows and orphans (single lines on top/bottom of page)
\widowpenalty10000 
\clubpenalty10000

\begin{document}

\begin{table}[t!]
  \centering
  \caption{Summary of strategy performances}
  \label{tab2:summary}
  \begin{threeparttable}
  \begin{tabular*}{\linewidth}{l@{\extracolsep{\fill}}*{3}{c}}

\toprule
          & \makecell{\textbf{Individual} \\ \textbf{Cryptocurrencies}} & \makecell{\textbf{Equally-weighted} \\ \textbf{benchmark}} & \makecell{\textbf{Risk-based} \\ \textbf{Strategies}} \\

 \midrule
    \multicolumn{2}{l}{\textit{Panel A: Risk and Return}}        &       &       \\
    Mean  & \textbf{--} & \textbf{+}  & \textbf{--} \\
    SD    & \textbf{--} & \textbf{--} & \textbf{+} \\
    SR    & \textbf{--} & \textbf{--}   & \textbf{+} \\
    Min   & \textbf{--} & \textbf{--} & \textbf{+}   \\
    Max   & \textbf{--} & \textbf{--} & \textbf{+} \\
    Skew  & \textbf{--} & \textbf{--} & \textbf{+} \\
    Kurt  & \textbf{--} & \textbf{--} & \textbf{+} \\
    \midrule
    \multicolumn{2}{l}{\textit{Panel B: Tail and Extreme Risk}}       &       &  \\
    VaR (5\%) & \textbf{--} & \textbf{--} & \textbf{+} \\
    VaR (1\%) & \textbf{--} & \textbf{--} & \textbf{+} \\
    CVaR(5\%) & \textbf{--} & \textbf{--} & \textbf{+} \\
    CVaR (1\%)& \textbf{--} & \textbf{--} & \textbf{+} \\
    DD        & \textbf{--} & \textbf{--} & \textbf{+} \\
    MD        & \textbf{--} & \textbf{--} & \textbf{+} \\
    LPM       & \textbf{--} & \textbf{--} & \textbf{+} \\
    \midrule
    \multicolumn{2}{l}{\textit{Panel C: Conditional Performance}}        &       &  \\
    Bull market & \textbf{--} & \textbf{--} & \textbf{+} \\
    Bear market & \textbf{--} & \textbf{--} & \textbf{+} \\
    \bottomrule

  \end{tabular*}
  \begin{tablenotes}[para,flushleft]
  \footnotesize
  \item\hspace{-2.5pt}\noindent\textit{Note:} The table
  provides xx
  \end{tablenotes}
  \end{threeparttable}
\end{table}


\end{document}
  • ...for future reference: Is loading all of the packages you list necessary for this example? If not, remove all unnecessary loading for the sake of providing something that is minimal yet working but still highlights the problem. – Werner Sep 26 at 19:17
  • 2
    Off-topic: It's a pure and simple error to load both the apacite package and the natbib. Load one or the other, but not both. And don't load the a4wide package if you load the geometry package. – Mico Sep 26 at 19:34
4

your question is primary opinion based ... so the main contribution of MWE below is cleanup of your code from all unnecessary repetition of textbf, use thead instead of makecell in column headers and introduction threepartablex package for writing table notes:

\documentclass[a4paper, 12pt]{article}
\DeclareUnicodeCharacter{FB01}{fi}
\DeclareUnicodeCharacter{FB02}{fl}
\usepackage{booktabs, makecell, multirow, tabularx}
\renewcommand\theadfont{\small\bfseries}
\usepackage[referable]{threeparttablex}
\usepackage{caption}

\usepackage{siunitx} %setze S in Tabelle, um nach dem Punkt auszurichten
\usepackage[a4paper, 
           margin=30mm,headsep=10mm, footskip=12mm]{geometry}

\begin{document}
    \begin{table}[ht]
  \centering
  \caption{Summary of strategy performances}
  \label{tab2:summary}
  \begin{threeparttable}
  \begin{tabularx}{\linewidth}{l*{3}{>{\bfseries\centering\arraybackslash}X}}
    \toprule
    &   \thead{Individual\\ Cryptocurrencies}
        &   \thead{Equally-weighted\\ benchmark}
            &   \thead{Risk-based\\ Strategies}             \\
    \midrule
\multicolumn{4}{c}{\textit{Panel A: Risk and Return}}       \\
    \midrule
    Mean  & --  & +     & --    \\
    SD    & --  & --    & +     \\
    SR    & --  & --    & +     \\
    Min   & --  & --    & +     \\
    Max   & --  & --    & +     \\
    Skew  & --  & --    & +     \\
    Kurt  & --  & --    & +     \\
    \addlinespace
\multicolumn{4}{c}{\textit{Panel B: Tail and Extreme Risk}} \\
    \midrule
    VaR (5\%) & --  & --    & +     \\
    VaR (1\%) & --  & --    & +     \\
    CVaR(5\%) & --  & --    & +     \\
    CVaR (1\%)& --  & --    & +     \\
    DD        & --  & --    & +     \\
    MD        & --  & --    & +     \\
    LPM       & --  & --    & +     \\
    \addlinespace
\multicolumn{4}{c}{\textit{Panel C: Conditional Performance}}\\
    \midrule
    Bull market & --    & --    & + \\
    Bear market & --    & --    & + \\
    \bottomrule
  \end{tabularx}
  \begin{tablenotes}[para,flushleft]
  \footnotesize
  \note The table
  provides xx
  \end{tablenotes}
  \end{threeparttable}
    \end{table}
\end{document}

Above MWE gives:

enter image description here

3

Probably you are more satisfied with the following. I have used @{\quad\quad} to indent the first column while leaving the entries of the multicolumns unindented. I have also replaced \item\hspace{-2.5pt}\noindent\textit{Note:} with \note.

enter image description here

\documentclass[a4paper, 12pt]{article}
\usepackage{makecell}
\usepackage[referable]{threeparttablex}
\usepackage{booktabs}


\begin{document}

\begin{table}[t!]
  \centering
  \caption{Summary of strategy performances}
  \label{tab2:summary}
  \begin{threeparttable}
  \begin{tabular*}{\linewidth}{@{\quad\quad}l@{\extracolsep{\fill}}*{3}{c}}

\toprule
          & \makecell{\textbf{Individual} \\ \textbf{Cryptocurrencies}} & \makecell{\textbf{Equally-weighted} \\ \textbf{benchmark}} & \makecell{\textbf{Risk-based} \\ \textbf{Strategies}} \\

 \midrule
    \multicolumn{2}{l}{\textit{Panel A: Risk and Return}}        &       &       \\
    Mean  & \textbf{--} & \textbf{+}  & \textbf{--} \\
    SD    & \textbf{--} & \textbf{--} & \textbf{+} \\
    SR    & \textbf{--} & \textbf{--}   & \textbf{+} \\
    Min   & \textbf{--} & \textbf{--} & \textbf{+}   \\
    Max   & \textbf{--} & \textbf{--} & \textbf{+} \\
    Skew  & \textbf{--} & \textbf{--} & \textbf{+} \\
    Kurt  & \textbf{--} & \textbf{--} & \textbf{+} \\
    \midrule
    \multicolumn{2}{l}{\textit{Panel B: Tail and Extreme Risk}}       &       &  \\
    VaR (5\%) & \textbf{--} & \textbf{--} & \textbf{+} \\
    VaR (1\%) & \textbf{--} & \textbf{--} & \textbf{+} \\
    CVaR(5\%) & \textbf{--} & \textbf{--} & \textbf{+} \\
    CVaR (1\%)& \textbf{--} & \textbf{--} & \textbf{+} \\
    DD        & \textbf{--} & \textbf{--} & \textbf{+} \\
    MD        & \textbf{--} & \textbf{--} & \textbf{+} \\
    LPM       & \textbf{--} & \textbf{--} & \textbf{+} \\
    \midrule
    \multicolumn{2}{l}{\textit{Panel C: Conditional Performance}}        &       &  \\
    Bull market & \textbf{--} & \textbf{--} & \textbf{+} \\
    Bear market & \textbf{--} & \textbf{--} & \textbf{+} \\
    \bottomrule

  \end{tabular*}
  \begin{tablenotes}[para,flushleft]
  \footnotesize
  \note The table provides xx
  \end{tablenotes}
  \end{threeparttable}
\end{table}


\end{document}
2

I suggest you start by changing all three instances of

\multicolumn{2}{l}{\textit{Panel ...}}       &       &  \\

to

\multicolumn{4}{l}{\textit{Panel ...}}  \\

To spruce up the "look" of the table, I would also replace the interior instances of \midrule with \addlinespace, and I would replace all instances of \textbf{+} and \textbf{--} with $\bm{+}$ and $\bm{-}$, respectively. Furthermore, I can't see any (typographic) justification for rendering the header cells in bold, and using the threeparttable machinery seems pointless since there aren't any \tnote directives.

enter image description here

\documentclass[a4paper, 12pt]{article}
%%% I tried to simplify the preamble considerably...
%\DeclareUnicodeCharacter{FB01}{fi}
%\DeclareUnicodeCharacter{FB02}{fl}
%\usepackage[space]{grffile}
%\usepackage{apacite}
\usepackage{makecell}
%\usepackage{afterpage}
%\usepackage{dblfloatfix}
%\usepackage[referable]{threeparttablex}
%\usepackage[paper=portrait,pagesize]{typearea}
%\usepackage{mleftright}
%\usepackage{lscape}
%\usepackage{a4wide}
\usepackage[T1]{fontenc}
\usepackage[utf8]{inputenc}
\usepackage[onehalfspacing]{setspace}
\usepackage{%float, afterpage, rotating, 
           graphicx}
\usepackage[dvipsnames]{xcolor}
\usepackage{tikz, %epstopdf,
            pgfplots}
\usepackage{%longtable, 
            booktabs, tabularx}
%\usepackage{fancyvrb, moreverb, relsize}
%\usepackage{eurosym, calc, chngcntr}
\usepackage{amsmath, amssymb, %amsfonts, 
            amsthm, bm}
%\usepackage{mathtools}
%\DeclareMathOperator*{\argmin}{arg\,min}
%\DeclareMathOperator*{\argmax}{arg\,max}
\usepackage[%labelfont=bf, 
            skip=5pt]{caption}
%\usepackage{mdwlist}
%\usepackage{tabularx, booktabs}
%\newcolumntype{C}{>{\centering\arraybackslash}X}
%\usepackage{xfrac}
\usepackage{%setspace,
     geometry}
%\usepackage{xcolor}
\usepackage{lmodern}
\usepackage{upgreek}
%\usepackage{afterpage}
%\usepackage{wrapfig}
%\usepackage{pdflscape}
%\usepackage{multirow, booktabs, makecell, caption}
%\usepackage{fancyhdr}
%\usepackage[toc]{glossaries}
%\usepackage{subcaption}
%\usepackage{lipsum}  
%\usepackage{amsmath}
%\usepackage{amssymb}
%\usepackage{eurosym}
%\usepackage{amsfonts}
%\usepackage{booktabs}
%\usepackage{abstract}
%\usepackage{dcolumn}
%\usepackage{graphicx}
\usepackage[hyphens]{url}
%\usepackage{acronym}
\usepackage[english]{babel}
\usepackage[round, sort&compress]{natbib} 
    %sort&compress orders in-text citations automatically
%\usepackage{pgfplots}
%\usepackage{threeparttable}
\usepackage{siunitx} %setze S in Tabelle, um nach dem Punkt auszurichten
%\usepackage[export]{adjustbox}
%\usepackage{etoolbox}
%\usepackage{appendix}
\usepackage[bottom,hang,flushmargin]{footmisc} 
   % make footnotes appear on bottom and not end of text on single page
\geometry{a4paper, margin =30mm, headsep = 10mm, footskip = 12mm}

% prevent typographic widows and orphans:
\widowpenalty10000 
\clubpenalty10000

\usepackage[hyperfootnotes=false]{hyperref}
\usepackage{footnotebackref}

\begin{document}

\begin{table}[t!]
  %\centering % redundant
  \setlength\tabcolsep{0pt} % <-- new
  \caption{Summary of strategy performances}
  \label{tab2:summary}
  %\begin{threeparttable}
\begin{tabular*}{\linewidth}{l@{\extracolsep{\fill}}*{3}{c}}
\toprule
& \makecell{Individual \\ Cryptocurrencies} 
& \makecell{Equally-weighted \\ benchmark} 
& \makecell{Risk-based \\ Strategies} \\
\midrule
\multicolumn{4}{l}{\textit{Panel A: Risk and Return}}  \\
    Mean  & $\bm{-}$ & $\bm{+}$ & $\bm{-}$ \\
    SD    & $\bm{-}$ & $\bm{-}$ & $\bm{+}$ \\
    SR    & $\bm{-}$ & $\bm{-}$ & $\bm{+}$ \\
    Min   & $\bm{-}$ & $\bm{-}$ & $\bm{+}$ \\
    Max   & $\bm{-}$ & $\bm{-}$ & $\bm{+}$ \\
    Skew  & $\bm{-}$ & $\bm{-}$ & $\bm{+}$ \\
    Kurt  & $\bm{-}$ & $\bm{-}$ & $\bm{+}$ \\
%\midrule
\addlinespace
\multicolumn{4}{l}{\textit{Panel B: Tail and Extreme Risk}} \\
    VaR (5\%) & $\bm{-}$ & $\bm{-}$ & $\bm{+}$ \\
    VaR (1\%) & $\bm{-}$ & $\bm{-}$ & $\bm{+}$ \\
    CVaR(5\%) & $\bm{-}$ & $\bm{-}$ & $\bm{+}$ \\
    CVaR (1\%)& $\bm{-}$ & $\bm{-}$ & $\bm{+}$ \\
    DD        & $\bm{-}$ & $\bm{-}$ & $\bm{+}$ \\
    MD        & $\bm{-}$ & $\bm{-}$ & $\bm{+}$ \\
    LPM       & $\bm{-}$ & $\bm{-}$ & $\bm{+}$ \\
%\midrule
\addlinespace
\multicolumn{4}{l}{\textit{Panel C: Conditional Performance}}  \\
    Bull market & $\bm{-}$ & $\bm{-}$ & $\bm{+}$ \\
    Bear market & $\bm{-}$ & $\bm{-}$ & $\bm{+}$ \\
\bottomrule
\end{tabular*}

%\begin{tablenotes}[para,flushleft]
\smallskip
\footnotesize
\textit{Note:} The table provides \dots
%\end{tablenotes}
%\end{threeparttable}
\end{table}
\end{document}

Addendum: If you really don't want to let the headers in the first column protrude into the data columns, I suggest you switch from a tabular* to a tabularx environment, with modified forms of the X column type for all four columns:

enter image description here

\documentclass[12pt]{article}

\usepackage[T1]{fontenc}
\usepackage[utf8]{inputenc}
\usepackage{lmodern, booktabs}
\usepackage{tabularx}
%% new: define 2 new column types: L and C
\newcolumntype{L}[1]{%
   >{\raggedright\arraybackslash\hsize=#1\hsize%
     \hangafter=1\hangindent=1.5em}X} % automatic hanging indentation
\newcolumntype{C}[1]{%
   >{\centering\arraybackslash\hsize=#1\hsize}X}

\usepackage{amsmath, amssymb, amsthm, bm}
\usepackage[skip=0.333\baselineskip]{caption}
\usepackage{geometry}
\geometry{a4paper,margin=30mm,headsep=10mm,footskip=12mm}

\begin{document}

\begin{table}[t!]
\caption{Summary of strategy performances}
\label{tab:summary}
\begin{tabularx}{\linewidth}{@{} L{1.45} *{2}{C{0.95}} C{0.65} @{}} 
  % 1.45+2*0.95+0.65 = 4 = # of columns of type "X"
\toprule
& Individual Cryptocurrencies & Equally-weighted benchmark & Risk-based Strategies \\
\midrule
\textit{Panel A: Risk and Return}  \\
    Mean  & $\bm{-}$ & $\bm{+}$ & $\bm{-}$ \\
    SD    & $\bm{-}$ & $\bm{-}$ & $\bm{+}$ \\
    SR    & $\bm{-}$ & $\bm{-}$ & $\bm{+}$ \\
    Min   & $\bm{-}$ & $\bm{-}$ & $\bm{+}$ \\
    Max   & $\bm{-}$ & $\bm{-}$ & $\bm{+}$ \\
    Skew  & $\bm{-}$ & $\bm{-}$ & $\bm{+}$ \\
    Kurt  & $\bm{-}$ & $\bm{-}$ & $\bm{+}$ \\
\addlinespace
\textit{Panel B: Tail and Extreme Risk} \\
    VaR (5\%) & $\bm{-}$ & $\bm{-}$ & $\bm{+}$ \\
    VaR (1\%) & $\bm{-}$ & $\bm{-}$ & $\bm{+}$ \\
    CVaR(5\%) & $\bm{-}$ & $\bm{-}$ & $\bm{+}$ \\
    CVaR (1\%)& $\bm{-}$ & $\bm{-}$ & $\bm{+}$ \\
    DD        & $\bm{-}$ & $\bm{-}$ & $\bm{+}$ \\
    MD        & $\bm{-}$ & $\bm{-}$ & $\bm{+}$ \\
    LPM       & $\bm{-}$ & $\bm{-}$ & $\bm{+}$ \\
\addlinespace
\textit{Panel C: Conditional Performance} \\
    Bull market & $\bm{-}$ & $\bm{-}$ & $\bm{+}$ \\
    Bear market & $\bm{-}$ & $\bm{-}$ & $\bm{+}$ \\
\bottomrule
\end{tabularx}

\smallskip
\footnotesize
\textit{Note:} The table provides \dots
\end{table}
\end{document}

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