1

I need arrows from 4 to 2, 6 to 2, 14 to 11, 16 to 11. Thanks!

\documentclass{article}
\usepackage{float}
\usepackage{tikz}
\usetikzlibrary{automata, positioning, arrows}
\tikzset{
->, % makes the edges directed
%>=stealth', % makes the arrow heads bold
node distance=3cm, % specifies the minimum distance between two nodes. Change if necessary.
every state/.style={thick, fill=gray!10}, % sets the properties for each 'state' node
initial text=$ $, % sets the text that appears on the start arrow
 }
 \begin{document}
  \begin{figure}[H]
1.19 a
%\centering
\begin{tikzpicture}[node distance=2em and 2em]
    \node[state, initial](1) {};
    \node[state, right=of 1](2){};
    \node[state, above right=of 2](3){};
    \node[state, right=of 3](4) {};
    \node[state, below right=of 2](5){};
    \node[state, right=of 5](6){};
    \node[state, below right=of 4](7){};
    \node[state,right=of 7](8){};
    \node[state,right=of 8](9){};
    \node[state,right=of 9](10){};
    \node[state,accepting, below =of 10](11){};
    \node[state, below left=of 11](12){};
    \node[state, above left =of 12](13){};
    \node[state, below left=of 12](15){};
    \node[state,accepting,left =of 13](14){};
    \node[state,accepting, left =of 15](16){};
    \draw
    (1) edge[above] node{$\epsilon$} (2)
    (1) to[out=50,in=90,looseness=1.2, above]node{$\epsilon$} (7)
    (2) edge[above]node{$\epsilon$}(3)
    (2) edge[above]node{$\epsilon$}(5)
    (3) edge[below]node{$0$}(4)
    (5) edge[above]node{$1$}(6)
    (4) edge[below]node{$\epsilon$}(7)
    (6) edge[above]node{$\epsilon$}(7)
    (7) edge[above]node{$0$}(8)
    (8) edge[above]node{$0$}(9)
    (9) edge[above]node{$0$}(10)
    (10) edge[left]node{$\epsilon$}(11)
    (11) edge[above]node{$\epsilon$}(12)
    (12) edge[above]node{$\epsilon$}(13)
    (13) edge[above]node{$0$}(14)
    (12) edge[above]node{$\epsilon$}(15)
    (15) edge[above]node{$1$}(16);
\path (current bounding box.north) ++ (0,1cm);
\end{tikzpicture}
\caption{$(0\cup 1)^*000(0\cup 1)^*$}
\end{figure}
 \end{document}

1 Answer 1

2

You can use bend left, bend right and in and out to bend the arrows in such a way that they avoid collisions. Sometimes these bent curves increase the bounding box too much, then you can use overlay to exclude them from the bounding box determination.

\documentclass{article}
\usepackage{float}
\usepackage{tikz}
\usetikzlibrary{automata, positioning, arrows}
\tikzset{
->, % makes the edges directed
%>=stealth', % makes the arrow heads bold
node distance=3cm, % specifies the minimum distance between two nodes. Change if necessary.
every state/.style={thick, fill=gray!10}, % sets the properties for each 'state' node
initial text=$ $, % sets the text that appears on the start arrow
 }
 \begin{document}
  \begin{figure}[H]
1.19 a
%\centering
\begin{tikzpicture}[node distance=2em and 2em]
    \node[state, initial](1) {};
    \node[state, right=of 1](2){};
    \node[state, above right=of 2](3){};
    \node[state, right=of 3](4) {};
    \node[state, below right=of 2](5){};
    \node[state, right=of 5](6){};
    \node[state, below right=of 4](7){};
    \node[state,right=of 7](8){};
    \node[state,right=of 8](9){};
    \node[state,right=of 9](10){};
    \node[state,accepting, below =of 10](11){};
    \node[state, below left=of 11](12){};
    \node[state, above left =of 12](13){};
    \node[state, below left=of 12](15){};
    \node[state,accepting,left =of 13](14){};
    \node[state,accepting, left =of 15](16){};
    \draw
    (1) edge[above] node{$\epsilon$} (2)
    (1) to[out=50,in=90,looseness=1.2, above]node{$\epsilon$} (7)
    (2) edge[above]node{$\epsilon$}(3)
    (2) edge[above]node{$\epsilon$}(5)
    (3) edge[below]node{$0$}(4)
    (5) edge[above]node{$1$}(6)
    (4) edge[below]node{$\epsilon$}(7)
    (6) edge[above]node{$\epsilon$}(7)
    (7) edge[above]node{$0$}(8)
    (8) edge[above]node{$0$}(9)
    (9) edge[above]node{$0$}(10)
    (10) edge[left]node{$\epsilon$}(11)
    (11) edge[above]node{$\epsilon$}(12)
    (12) edge[above]node{$\epsilon$}(13)
    (13) edge[above]node{$0$}(14)
    (12) edge[above]node{$\epsilon$}(15)
    (15) edge[above]node{$1$}(16)
    (4) edge[bend left=15] (2)
    (6) edge[bend right=15] (2)
    (14) edge[bend left=30] (11)
    (16) edge[out=-40,in=-90,overlay] (11)
    ;
\path (current bounding box.north) ++ (0,1cm);
\end{tikzpicture}
\caption{$(0\cup 1)^*000(0\cup 1)^*$}
\end{figure}
\end{document}

enter image description here

Or with bent arrows and the updated nodes. Now I also changed the looseness where appropriate.

\documentclass{article}
\usepackage{float}
\usepackage{tikz}
\usetikzlibrary{automata, positioning, arrows.meta,bending}
\tikzset{
->, % makes the edges directed
>={Stealth[bend]}, % makes the arrow heads bold
node distance=3cm, % specifies the minimum distance between two nodes. Change if necessary.
every state/.style={thick, fill=gray!10}, % sets the properties for each 'state' node
initial text=$ $, % sets the text that appears on the start arrow
 }
 \begin{document}
  \begin{figure}[H]
1.19 a
%\centering
\begin{tikzpicture}[node distance=2em and 2em]
    \node[state, initial](1) {};
    \node[state, right=of 1](2){};
    \node[state, above right=of 2](3){};
    \node[state, right=of 3](4) {};
    \node[state, below right=of 2](5){};
    \node[state, right=of 5](6){};
    \node[state, below right=of 4](7){};
    \node[state,right=of 7](8){};
    \node[state,right=of 8](9){};
    \node[state,right=of 9](10){};
    \node[state,accepting, below =of 10](11){};
    \node[state, below left=of 11](12){};
    \node[state, above left =of 12](13){};
    \node[state, below left=of 12](15){};
    \node[state,accepting,left =of 13](14){};
    \node[state,accepting, left =of 15](16){};
    \draw
    (1) edge[above] node{$\epsilon$} (2)
    (1) to[out=50,in=90,looseness=1.2, above]node{$\epsilon$} (7)
    (2) edge[above]node{$\epsilon$}(3)
    (2) edge[above]node{$\epsilon$}(5)
    (3) edge[below]node{$0$}(4)
    (5) edge[above]node{$1$}(6)
    (4) edge[below]node{$\epsilon$}(7)
    (6) edge[above]node{$\epsilon$}(7)
    (7) edge[above]node{$0$}(8)
    (8) edge[above]node{$0$}(9)
    (9) edge[above]node{$0$}(10)
    (10) edge[left]node{$\epsilon$}(11)
    (11) edge[above]node{$\epsilon$}(12)
    (12) edge[above]node{$\epsilon$}(13)
    (13) edge[above]node{$0$}(14)
    (12) edge[above]node{$\epsilon$}(15)
    (15) edge[above]node{$1$}(16)
    (4) edge[bend left=15] (2)
    (6) edge[bend right=15] (2)
    (14) edge[out=45,in=90,looseness=1.5] (12)
    (16) edge[out=-45,in=-90,looseness=1.5,overlay] (12)
    ;
\path (current bounding box.north) ++ (0,1cm)
(current bounding box.south) ++ (0,-0.3cm);
\end{tikzpicture}
\caption{$(0\cup 1)^*000(0\cup 1)^*$}
\end{figure}
\end{document}

enter image description here

2
  • oops, I meant to say 14 to 12, and 16 to 12. Sorry Feb 4, 2020 at 0:47
  • @JohnHendrickson Added.
    – user194703
    Feb 4, 2020 at 0:56

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