4

I would like to draw the following images on my paper. I tried to import the image using graphicx, but LaTeX could not find it (the image is in the same file as my tex), so I decided to draw them out. Please teach me what package to use and what code would display the following images. Thank you!

enter image description here

10

This code requires the experimental library 3dtools.

\documentclass[tikz,border=3mm]{standalone}
\usepackage{tikz-3dplot}
\usetikzlibrary{backgrounds,3dtools,shapes.geometric}
\tikzset{pics/isocahedron/.style={code={
\path foreach \Coord [count=\X] in 
{(0.,0.,-0.9510565162951536),
(0.,0.,0.9510565162951536),
(-0.85065080835204,0.,-0.42532540417601994),
(0.85065080835204,0.,0.42532540417601994),
(0.6881909602355868,-0.5,-0.42532540417601994),
(0.6881909602355868,0.5,-0.42532540417601994),
(-0.6881909602355868,-0.5,0.42532540417601994),
(-0.6881909602355868,0.5,0.42532540417601994),
(-0.2628655560595668,-0.8090169943749475,-0.42532540417601994),
(-0.2628655560595668,0.8090169943749475,-0.42532540417601994),
(0.2628655560595668,-0.8090169943749475,0.42532540417601994),
(0.2628655560595668,0.8090169943749475,0.42532540417601994)}
  {\Coord coordinate (p\X) \pgfextra{\xdef\NumVertices{\X}}};
 %\message{number of vertices is \NumVertices^^J} 
 % normal of screen 
 \path[overlay] ({sin(\tdplotmaintheta)*sin(\tdplotmainphi)},
    {-1*sin(\tdplotmaintheta)*cos(\tdplotmainphi)},
    {cos(\tdplotmaintheta)}) coordinate (n)
    ({-sqrt(1/6)},{sqrt(3/6)},{sqrt(2/6)})  coordinate (L); 
 \edef\lstPast{0}
 \foreach \poly in 
 {{2,12,8},{2,8,7},{2,7,11},{2,11,4},{2,4,12},{5,9,1},{6,5,1},
    {10,6,1},{3,10,1},{9,3,1},{12,10,8},{8,3,7},{7,9,11},{11,5,4},{4,6,12},
    {5,11,9},{6,4,5},{10,12,6},{3,8,10},{9,7,3}}
 {
  \pgfmathtruncatemacro{\ione}{{\poly}[0]}
  \pgfmathtruncatemacro{\itwo}{{\poly}[1]}
  \pgfmathtruncatemacro{\ithree}{{\poly}[2]}
  \path[overlay,3d coordinate={(dA)=(p\itwo)-(p\ione)},
   3d coordinate={(dB)=(p\itwo)-(p\ithree)},
   3d coordinate={(nA)=(dA)x(dB)}] ;
  \pgfmathtruncatemacro{\jtest}{sign(TD("(nA)o(p\ione)"))}
  % make sure that the normal points outwards
  \ifnum\jtest<0
   \path[overlay,3d coordinate={(nA)=(dB)x(dA)}];
  \fi
  % compute projection the normal of the polygon on the normal of screen    
  \pgfmathsetmacro\myproj{TD("(nA)o(n)")}
  \pgfmathsetmacro\lproj{TD("(nA)o(L)")}
  \pgfmathtruncatemacro{\itest}{sign(\myproj)}
  \ifnum\itest>-1 
   \draw[thick] [fill=white,fill opacity=0.2]
   plot[samples at=\poly,variable=\x](p\x) -- cycle; 
  \else
   \begin{scope}[on background layer] 
    \draw[gray,ultra thin] 
    plot[samples at=\poly,variable=\x](p\x) -- cycle;  
   \end{scope}
  \fi
  }}}}
\begin{document}
\tdplotsetmaincoords{70}{65}

\begin{tikzpicture}[line cap=round,line join=round,
    bullet/.style={circle,fill,inner sep=1.5pt}]
 \pic[tdplot_main_coords,scale=2,rotate=30]{isocahedron};
 %\foreach \X in {1,...,\NumVertices}  {\path (p\X) node[above]{\X};}
 \path (p12) node[above]{$D$} -- 
  node[bullet,label=above:$N$](N){}
  (p2) node[above]{$A$}
  (p7) node[left]{$B$} -- 
  node[bullet,label={[xshift=3pt]above:$M$}]{}
  (p11) node[below right]{$C$};
 \begin{scope}[xshift=5cm]
  \path let \p1=($(N)-(0,0)$) in
   node[regular polygon,regular polygon sides=6,draw,thick,minimum size=2*\y1] 
  (6gon){};
  \path (6gon.corner 1) node[above] {$D$}
   -- node[bullet,label=above:$N$](N'){}
   (6gon.corner 2) node[above] {$A$};
  \draw[thick] (6gon.corner 3) node[left] {$M$} 
   -- node[bullet,label=below right:$O$](O){}
   (6gon.corner 6)
   (O) edge (N');
  \draw ([xshift=-1em]O.center)  |- ([yshift=1em]O.center);
 \end{scope}
\end{tikzpicture}
\end{document}

enter image description here

The icosahedron is rotatable in 3d.

\documentclass[tikz,border=3mm]{standalone}
\usepackage{tikz-3dplot}
\usetikzlibrary{backgrounds,3dtools,shapes.geometric}
\tikzset{pics/isocahedron/.style={code={
\path foreach \Coord [count=\X] in 
{(0.,0.,-0.9510565162951536),
(0.,0.,0.9510565162951536),
(-0.85065080835204,0.,-0.42532540417601994),
(0.85065080835204,0.,0.42532540417601994),
(0.6881909602355868,-0.5,-0.42532540417601994),
(0.6881909602355868,0.5,-0.42532540417601994),
(-0.6881909602355868,-0.5,0.42532540417601994),
(-0.6881909602355868,0.5,0.42532540417601994),
(-0.2628655560595668,-0.8090169943749475,-0.42532540417601994),
(-0.2628655560595668,0.8090169943749475,-0.42532540417601994),
(0.2628655560595668,-0.8090169943749475,0.42532540417601994),
(0.2628655560595668,0.8090169943749475,0.42532540417601994)}
  {\Coord coordinate (p\X) \pgfextra{\xdef\NumVertices{\X}}};
 %\message{number of vertices is \NumVertices^^J} 
 % normal of screen 
 \path[overlay] ({sin(\tdplotmaintheta)*sin(\tdplotmainphi)},
    {-1*sin(\tdplotmaintheta)*cos(\tdplotmainphi)},
    {cos(\tdplotmaintheta)}) coordinate (n)
    ({-sqrt(1/6)},{sqrt(3/6)},{sqrt(2/6)})  coordinate (L); 
 \edef\lstPast{0}
 \foreach \poly in 
 {{2,12,8},{2,8,7},{2,7,11},{2,11,4},{2,4,12},{5,9,1},{6,5,1},
    {10,6,1},{3,10,1},{9,3,1},{12,10,8},{8,3,7},{7,9,11},{11,5,4},{4,6,12},
    {5,11,9},{6,4,5},{10,12,6},{3,8,10},{9,7,3}}
 {
  \pgfmathtruncatemacro{\ione}{{\poly}[0]}
  \pgfmathtruncatemacro{\itwo}{{\poly}[1]}
  \pgfmathtruncatemacro{\ithree}{{\poly}[2]}
  \path[overlay,3d coordinate={(dA)=(p\itwo)-(p\ione)},
   3d coordinate={(dB)=(p\itwo)-(p\ithree)},
   3d coordinate={(nA)=(dA)x(dB)}] ;
  \pgfmathtruncatemacro{\jtest}{sign(TD("(nA)o(p\ione)"))}
  % make sure that the normal points outwards
  \ifnum\jtest<0
   \path[overlay,3d coordinate={(nA)=(dB)x(dA)}];
  \fi
  % compute projection the normal of the polygon on the normal of screen    
  \pgfmathsetmacro\myproj{TD("(nA)o(n)")}
  \pgfmathsetmacro\lproj{TD("(nA)o(L)")}
  \pgfmathtruncatemacro{\itest}{sign(\myproj)}
  \ifnum\itest>-1 
   \draw[thick] [fill=white,fill opacity=0.2]
   plot[samples at=\poly,variable=\x](p\x) -- cycle; 
  \else
   \begin{scope}[on background layer] 
    \draw[gray,ultra thin] 
    plot[samples at=\poly,variable=\x](p\x) -- cycle;  
   \end{scope}
  \fi
  }}}}
\begin{document}
\foreach \XX in {0,10,...,350}
{\begin{tikzpicture}[line cap=round,line join=round,
    bullet/.style={circle,fill,inner sep=1.5pt}]
 \path (-3.5,-3.5) rectangle (3.5,3.5);
 \tdplotsetmaincoords{60+20*sin(\XX)}{\XX}  
 \pic[tdplot_main_coords,scale=3]{isocahedron};
\end{tikzpicture}}
\end{document}

enter image description here

|improve this answer|||||
  • 3
    Wait, I really need to come to grips with this: You're saying that LaTeX code, such as provided here, can generate a PDF with embedded 3D rotatable (either manually or animated) graphics? Good Sweet WonderBar! I used to have a project that I always wanted to throw 3D graphs in to make some concepts easier to understand, but it was so far beyond current efforts that I punted. But this... even if it's a mathematical generation... would be awesome. Thanks! – J.Hirsch Feb 17 at 14:47
  • This is what I wanted! I just downloaded PGF and TikZ and ran the code, but it didn't work... Where do I suppose to place my pgf_3.1.tds? – No way Yes way Feb 17 at 16:21
  • 1
    @NowayYesway You need to download tikzlibrary3dtools.code.tex from here and put it in the same directory as the main file (or at some other place where TeX can find it). – Schrödinger's cat Feb 17 at 16:25
  • 1
    @J.Hirsch It is rotatable in the sense that you can choose the projection from 3d to the screen. This is what \tdplotsetmaincoords{<latitude>}{<longitude>} from tikz-3dplot does, and there are several other packages that do that in LaTeX. What this code does in addition is to decide which faces are behind other faces, i.e. 3d ordering. asymptote has means to produce objects that can be rotated in a pdf, see e.g. tex.stackexchange.com/a/451803. To the best of my knowledge, this cannot yet be done with TikZ and the other LaTeX graphics packages. – Schrödinger's cat Feb 17 at 16:33
  • @Schrödinger'scat - Thank you. So it's still a requirement to have the java/html5 or whatever in the PDF package to do the 3D rendering/rotationgs/explorations. That's oK- I'm really glad to have it clarified. Thank you. – J.Hirsch Feb 17 at 16:36
3

Please see if this meets the requirement

enter image description here

\documentclass[a4paper]{amsart}
\usepackage{graphics, tkz-berge}
\begin{document}
\begin{figure}
\begin{tikzpicture}
  \begin{scope}[rotate=90]
    \SetVertexNoLabel   % <--- This avoids that default $a_0$, .. $b_0$ labels show up
    \grIcosahedral[form=1,RA=3,RB=1.5]

    % Following two lines assign labels to a-like and b-like nodes
    % change it as you prefer
    \AssignVertexLabel{a}{$v_0$, $v_1$, $v_2$, $v_3$, $v_4$, $v_5$};
    \AssignVertexLabel{b}{$v_6$, $v_7$, $v_8$, $v_9$, $v_{10}$, $v_{11}$};

    % The remaining code is unchanged
    \SetUpEdge[color=white,style={double=black,double distance=2pt}]
    \EdgeInGraphLoop{a}{6}
    \EdgeFromOneToSel{a}{b}{0}{1,5}
    \Edges(a2,b1,b3,b5,a4)
    \Edge(a3)(b3)
    \Edges(a1,b1,b5,a5)
    \Edges(a2,b3,a4)
  \end{scope}
\end{tikzpicture}
\end{figure}
\end{document}

Thanks to @JLDiaz who has given the solution -- https://tex.stackexchange.com/a/183075/197451

|improve this answer|||||
1

At https://github.com/NeilStrickland/groups_and_symmetry there is a full set of teaching material (including LaTeX files) for an undergraduate course on symmetry groups. The lecture notes contain many tikz diagrams of polyhedra including the icosahedron.

|improve this answer|||||
  • Can you extract from this documentation the code that answers the question? – AndréC Feb 17 at 16:15
  • No, I do not have precisely the requested diagram. But both the OP and other people reading this question are likely to have use for a range of similar diagrams. – Neil Strickland Feb 17 at 17:16

Your Answer

By clicking “Post Your Answer”, you agree to our terms of service, privacy policy and cookie policy

Not the answer you're looking for? Browse other questions tagged or ask your own question.