I could find it on the web. Is there a default vertical Spacing of the Figure/Table-Enviroment between the text and the picture/tabular in pt? I'm looking for the red marked space in the following picture:
I think that the following list gives you what you want.
\floatsep space between floats (default 12pt)
\textfloatsep space between a top (bottom) float and suceeding (preceeding) text (default 20pt)
\intextsep space above/below an [h] float (default 12pt)
\dblfloatsep like \floatsep for double column floats (default 12pt)
\dbltextfloatsep like \textfloatsep for double column floats (default 20pt)
You can check any of these for your particular document by
\the\...sep which will print the value in your printed output.
The textfloatsep is \the\textfloatsep.