References Section

In text Citation

Currently, I'm using apacite, but it's not coming out quite how I like it. There are ampersands (&) in the references section and we'd like "et al." to appear after 3 author references.

Let me know if you have any thoughts.


  • Welcome to TeX.SE
    – Mico
    Apr 24, 2020 at 18:22
  • You ask which citation [management] package is "best", how ever that may be measured, but then you also appear to require the use of the apacite citation management package. Please clarify our objectives and any constraints that must be satisfied.
    – Mico
    Apr 24, 2020 at 19:46
  • Hi Mico. I thought that package was the closest to what I needed. It does not need to be the apacite package. The objective is to make it look as similar to the above citation style. Apr 24, 2020 at 20:20

1 Answer 1


You ask two questions. One is about how to create a citation call-out of the form

(Lusardi, Schneider, and Tufano 2011)

which features (a) an authoryear-style citation call-out format, (b) parentheses around the entire citation call-out, (c) no punctuation mark between the author list and the year, (d) an "Oxford" comma ahead of the final "and", and (e) a complete list of all authors rather than just "Lusardi et al.".

That's actually easy to handle -- except for the Oxford comma requirement. First, be sure to load the natbib citation management package with the options authoryear, round, and longnamesfirst. Second, employ a bibliography style that's compatible with the natbib package. Third, assuming that the entry's key is given by `lst:2011, say, write the citation command as


The presence or absence of the Oxford comma is not determined by natbib but, rather, the bibliography style that's in use.

The second question asks which bibliography style might create formatted bibliographic entries that match the style of the entry shown in the screenshot. That's a much harder question. In the short run, you may want to check out the aer bibliography style, which meets at least five of your stylistic requirements (authors in bold; use of Oxford comma in author list in formatted entry; title in double-quote marks, journal name in italics, issue number in parentheses), but not all of them. E.g., the aer style does not employ an Oxford comma in the citation call-out.

In the medium term, you may want to familiarize yourself with the makebst utility of the custom-bib package. This utility will let you create a bespoke bibliography style that meets all of your formatting requirements, including some of less common ones -- such as that citation call-outs be truncated only if there are more than 3 authors. (The more common requirement is that author lists are truncated if there more than 2 authors.) I suggest you search this site for instances of the use of makebst for more information about this utility.

enter image description here

 title       = "Financially Fragile Households: Evidence and Implications",
 author      = "Lusardi, Annamaria and Schneider, Daniel J. and Tufano, Peter",
 institution = "National Bureau of Economic Research",
 address     = "Cambridge MA",
 type        = "Working Paper",
 number      = 17072,
 year        = 2011,
 URL         = "http://www.nber.org/papers/w17072",
  author = "Anne Author and Brenda Buthor and Carla Cuthor",
  title  = "Thoughts",
  journal= "Circularity Today",
  year   = 3001,
  volume = 17,
  number = 2,
  pages  = "46-100",

\usepackage{newtxtext,newtxmath} % optional

(\citealt{lst:2011}), (\citealt{abc:3001})

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