I have numerous documents in English which will be translated into Chinese. I use ctex package for Chinese typesetting and XeLaTeX for compiling. There are some strings repeating throughout the document (note, attention, feedback, etc.) which I would like to have translated into Chinese automatically using the translations package.

I check if ctex is loaded with \IfPackageLoaded, and then use \selectlanguage{chinese}.







% translations for 'mycountry':
\DeclareTranslationFallback {mycountry}{Default}
\DeclareTranslation{chinese} {mycountry}{国家}

% code required for checking if ctex is loaded





% comment out for English, uncomment for Chinese






Below is what I want and get if I do not add babel (which is required by translations). However, it also gives me an error Package babel Error: You haven't defined the language chinese yet.

enter image description here

If I add babel by uncommenting the two strings in preamble, the error disappears; but then babel messes up with ctex's translation of standard strings (Contents, List of Tables, etc.) into Chinese:

enter image description here

Any help to resolve this dilemma will be very much appreciated!

1 Answer 1


It does look like you would need


to avoid the error. However babel-zh.ini (as well as other Chinese locales, e.g. babel-zh-Hant-HK.ini, babel-zh-Hans.ini etc) doesn't define keys in the [captions] section, so \chinesecontentsname, \chineselisttablename etc are undefined. AFAIK there isn't a way for babel to automatically go look up these defined terms from ctex.

(In TL 2020 babel-ja.ini and babel-ko.ini do define key-value pairs in [captions], so you would not have this problem if you were working with \babel[import]{japanese} or \babel[import]{korean}. But still not the case for babel-zh.ini in TL2020.)

You can define these commands yourself in your main.tex or mypreamble.sty:


Or if you prefer, you can make a copy of babel-zh.ini (it's in /usr/local/texlive/2020basic/texmf-dist/tex/generic/babel/locale/zh/), rename it to babel-zh-myownhacks.ini, and edit the [captions] section:

preface = 前言
ref = 参考文献
abstract = 摘要

and then load it in your .tex/.sty via

  • A copy of babel-zh.ini worked without a hitch. Added it to a subfolder as suggested here to avoid cluttering my root directory. Thanks a lot!
    – f-hollow
    Commented Jul 31, 2020 at 7:41
  • I cannot find an option to import my custom .ini file from a different directory. Not sure how to add a path to it. Does anybody know how to do it?
    – f-hollow
    Commented Nov 2, 2020 at 4:27

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