# Why is there a missing piece of line on the table?

I have the following table which for some reason doesn't display the complete LHS vertical end line. I've notice that the line 'broke' when I added the \\; I added \\ because I wanted some space between the end-horizontal line and the fractions. Could someone please help me to fix the line?

\documentclass{article}
\usepackage[utf8]{inputenc}
\usepackage{amsmath}
\usepackage{tabularx}
\usepackage{graphicx}

\begin{document}

\begin{table}[h]
\begin{center}
\begin{tabular}{ | m{3.5cm} m{3.5cm} m{2.8cm}| }
\hline
%\vspace{2mm}
\multicolumn{3}{|l|}{\textbf{Reciprocal identities :}}\\
\vspace{2mm} $\sin \theta = \dfrac{1}{\csc \theta}$ & \vspace{2mm} $\cos \theta = \dfrac{1}{\sec \theta}$ & \vspace{2mm} $\tan \theta = \dfrac{1}{\cot \theta}$\\
\vspace{3mm} $\csc \theta = \dfrac{1}{\sin \theta}$ & \vspace{2mm} $\sec \theta = \dfrac{1}{\cos \theta}$ & \vspace{2mm} $\cot \theta = \dfrac{1}{\tan \theta}$\\ \\
\hline
\end{tabular}

\end{center}
\end{table}

\end{document}


Also, how can I add space between the horizontal line and 'Reciprocal identities'? I tried \vspace{2mm} (with %) but, once again, the line breaks and modifies the text to the center.

• You should put your tabular in a \fbox if you only want a box around the tabular. Commented Jul 30, 2020 at 21:02

You can use \$Xpt] instead of \\ \\ at the end of the last table line for considering some space between the last table line and the horizontal line. In this way, you can also adjust the space by changing the X value. So, your code will be something like this: \documentclass{article} \usepackage[utf8]{inputenc} \usepackage{amsmath} \usepackage{tabularx} \usepackage{graphicx} \begin{document} \begin{table}[h] \begin{center} \begin{tabular}{ | m{3.5cm} m{3.5cm} m{2.8cm}| } \hline %\vspace{2mm} \multicolumn{3}{|l|}{\textbf{Reciprocal identities :}}\\ \vspace{2mm} \sin \theta = \dfrac{1}{\csc \theta} & \vspace{2mm} \cos \theta = \dfrac{1}{\sec \theta} & \vspace{2mm} \tan \theta = \dfrac{1}{\cot \theta}\\ \vspace{3mm} \csc \theta = \dfrac{1}{\sin \theta} & \vspace{2mm} \sec \theta = \dfrac{1}{\cos \theta} & \vspace{2mm} \cot \theta = \dfrac{1}{\tan \theta} \\[20pt] \hline \end{tabular} \end{center} \end{table} \end{document}  • Thank you, it worked :) I also tried this after the first \hline, so \hline \\ [2pt], to have space between the first line and \textbf and indeed displayed space but with a broken line too. Do you know how can be fixed? Commented Jul 30, 2020 at 21:27 • You 're welcome! ;) Actually, I don't have a clean trick for that! but I think that \hline && \\[20pt] will work as it adds an empty line to the table. Commented Jul 30, 2020 at 21:35 • It worked too, thanks again. Commented Jul 30, 2020 at 21:56 Here is my suggestion using framed and an array instead of the inner tabular: \documentclass{article} \usepackage[utf8]{inputenc} \usepackage{amsmath} \usepackage{framed} \begin{document} \begin{table}[h] \renewcommand{\arraystretch}{2.5} \setlength{\arraycolsep}{25pt} \begin{framed} \textbf{Reciprocal identities:} \[\begin{array}{cll} \sin \theta = \dfrac{1}{\csc \theta} & \cos \theta = \dfrac{1}{\sec \theta} & \tan \theta = \dfrac{1}{\cot \theta}\\ \csc \theta = \dfrac{1}{\sin \theta} & \sec \theta = \dfrac{1}{\cos \theta} & \cot \theta = \dfrac{1}{\tan \theta}\\ \end{array}$
\end{framed}
\end{table}

\end{document}


You simply forgot, adding an empty row, to add a full empty row.

I propose two other solutions, one using cellspace, which ensures a minimal spacing at the top and bottom of cells in columns with specifier prefixed with the letter S (or C if you load siunitx and another entirely different, based on the empheq package, which enables to have boxed multilined equations:

\documentclass{article}
\usepackage[utf8]{inputenc}
\usepackage{empheq}
\usepackage{tabularx}
\usepackage{graphicx}
\usepackage{cellspace}
\setlength{\cellspacetoplimit}{6pt}
\setlength{\cellspacebottomlimit}{6pt}

\begin{document}

\begin{table}[h]
\centering
\begin{tabular}{ |*{2}{>{$}m{3.5cm}<{$}}>{$}m{2.8cm}<{$}| }
\hline
\multicolumn{3}{|l|}{\textbf{Reciprocal identities :}}\\
\vspace{2mm} \sin θ= \dfrac{1}{\csc θ}&\vspace{2mm} \cos θ= \dfrac{1}{\sec θ} & \vspace{2mm}\tan θ= \dfrac{1}{\cot θ}\\
\vspace{3mm} \csc θ= \dfrac{1}{\sin θ} & \vspace{2mm} \sec θ= \dfrac{1}{\cos θ} & \vspace{2mm} \cot θ= \dfrac{1}{\tan θ} \\ & & \\
\hline
\end{tabular}

\vskip1cm
\begin{tabular}{ |*{2}{>{$}S{m{3.5cm}}<{$}}>{$}S{m{2.8cm}}<{$}|}
\hline
\multicolumn{3}{|Sl|}{\textbf{Reciprocal identities :}}\\
\sin θ= \dfrac{1}{\csc θ}& \cos θ= \dfrac{1}{\sec θ} &\tan θ= \dfrac{1}{\cot θ}\\
\csc θ= \dfrac{1}{\sin θ} & \sec θ= \dfrac{1}{\cos θ} & \cot θ= \dfrac{1}{\tan θ} \\
\hline
\end{tabular}
\end{table}

\begin{empheq}[box = \widefbox]{align*}
& \rlap{\textbf{Reciprocal identities :}}\\
& \sin θ= \dfrac{1}{\csc θ}& & \cos θ= \dfrac{1}{\sec θ} & &\tan θ= \dfrac{1}{\cot θ}\\[1.5ex]
& \csc θ= \dfrac{1}{\sin θ} & & \sec θ= \dfrac{1}{\cos θ} & & \cot θ= \dfrac{1}{\tan θ}
\end{empheq}

\end{document}


• Thank you for your answer sir +1 Commented Jul 31, 2020 at 0:29