I'm using Texmaker and Jabref to manage my citing and bibliography but when I try to compile the document from Quick Build to BibTex, this message appeares..

Process started

INFO - This is Biber 2.15 (beta) INFO - Logfile is 'learn.blg' INFO - Reading 'learn.bcf' INFO - Found 3 citekeys in bib section 0 INFO - Processing section 0 INFO - Looking for bibtex format file 'myref11.bib' for section 0 INFO - LaTeX decoding ... INFO - Found BibTeX data source 'myref11.bib' ERROR - BibTeX subsystem: C:\Users\HP\AppData\Local\Temp\biber_tmp__f2h\c0efeb911292402dbea9da2bd121c9c1_10604.utf8, line 3, syntax error: found "Theory", expected "," INFO - ERRORS: 1

Process exited with error(s)

And this is my work :

\documentclass[12pt, a4paper]{article}

 \huge{\bfseries KINGDOM OF MALI} \parencite{OLD EMPIRE} \\
\line(1,0){200} \\

 \textsc{\Large African Civilization} \\
 \textsc{\large Khalid Bencheikh \\
 Department of English \\ 
 September 08, 2020 \\}
 The African continent is the cradle of many civilizations which were to pave the way for the humankind to evolve in terms of economy, education and politics \cite{Ahla}. Although it is hard now to claim that Africa was the peerless pioneer in such fields, it was once seen  indeed as the culmination of the human mind. The historians have stated a plethora of examples to solidify this claim. The Kingdom of Mali is one of many civilizations that would fit this description.

\addcontentsline{toc}{section}{\numberline{}List of Figures}

 The Mali Empire was a state that reigned West Africa between the 13th and 17th centuries (1240 C.E-1400s). At its peak of power during the 14th century, the mansas (Kings) of ancient Mali were blessed to rule over a kingdom that stretched over parts of modern day Mauritania, Mali, Senegal, the Gambia, Guinea Bissau and Guinea.It also extended to the north Sahara where they would profit from salt and gold mines. Additionally, the Mali Empire had an insurmountable military and well-organized political system, which bestowed the empire to rule over such a massive area.After this phase of prosperity and success, however, the Mali Empire suffered a long disintegration, until completely demising to give birth to the Bamana Empire during the 17th century.
The grace of trade and agriculture was tangible over the kingdom as it was very wealthy empire\cite{Game Theory} .Farmers grew rice, onions and beans at the behest of The king Sundiata who was a proponent of agriculture.Thanks to the Berbers and the Niger River, the empire had all the requirements to revive the trade and take advantage from its strategic position. However, under the wreckage of  the collapsed Kingdom of Ghana, The kingdom of Mali was able to discover more gold mines to further its wealth and influence in the area.    

   \includegraphics[height=3in]{C:/Users/HP/Desktop/Latex Project/Figures/sundiata}
   \caption [Sundiata]{Sundiata: Lion king of Mali}

Figure\ref{fig:Sundiata} Sundiata .

The most important achievements the Kingdom of Mali had the honor to claim are its profuse wealth and the wise managing of such a wealth. The gold mines and trade had the upper hand in attaining and maintaining the comfortable  economic situation of the empire. However, if it was not to the shrewdness of its rulers, none of these Utopian luxury would have happened. One of these Kings was Mansa Musa, a devout Muslim who would use this wealth to the benefit of Islam by promoting knowledge and education in different fields. This process entailed building mosques and universities mainly in the city of Timbuktu that would later persist through both the kingdoms Mali and Songhai.These endeavors would earmark the city of Timbuktu as a center of learning at that time.
\section{Social Class}
Being deeply influenced by the teachings of Islam, The kingdom of Mali espoused the Islamic ethos by having a hierarchy displayed in the king as the supreme ruler followed by sub-rulers and judges with curtailed authorities as far as the King was concerned. The imams were held to high standards as they were expected to be an active manifestation of Quran and therefore were respected. Like the kingdom of Ghana, The Mali had a middle class and slaves. 
Islam eventually became the main religion in the empire thanks to the efforts of Mansa Musa after some of the Islamic teachings were suppressed. Yet the Mande people of Mali failed to fully renounce some of their polytheistic tenets that contradict Islam like seeking guidance  from the dead.
\begin{figure} [H]
\includegraphics[height=3in]{C:/Users/HP/Desktop/Latex Project/Figures/Mansa Musa}
\caption[Mansa Musa]{Mansa Musa}
\label{fig:Mansa Musa}

The main source of law was Shari'ah, which is the interpretation of The Quran implemented by Gadis.However the transition of power was a peaceful process in which the male heir was to claim the throne after the king's death.

The death of Mansa musa was the latest straw in the wind for the imminent collapse of the kingdom as it revealed the lack of leadership in addition to the deterioration of resources and public comfort. Tension mounted amid this turbulent crisis to the point where schools and whole cities were burned down to the ground. This anarchy made the kingdom an easy, vulnerable and feeble target to its greedy neighbors.Eventually, something that big can die twenty years before falling over, a system like that can stumble along half gutted and still manages. The Kingdom of Mali finally  was taken over by the Songhai Empire to be then a part of its extensive project in the area. 
\includegraphics[height=3in]{C:/Users/HP/Desktop/Latex Project/Figures/Terracotta-archer-figure}
\caption[Terracotta archer figure]{Terracotta archer figure from the Mali Empire - 13th-15th century, with a quiver on his back. The bow and quiver of arrows were the symbols of power in Imperial Mali. (Saithilace / Public Domain )}


  • It sounds as if there is a comma missing in one of your bib entries. Search for one containing Theory. Commented Sep 13, 2020 at 15:36

1 Answer 1


The error comes from processing a temporary file generated from your bib data, myref11.bib, which is not shown. It is probably a problem with the citation tag "Game Theory". I know bibTeX can't handle spaces in citation tags, and I suppose your tool chain doesn't like them either. Try switching the tag to "GameTheory" in both your .tex and .bib files.

You must log in to answer this question.

Not the answer you're looking for? Browse other questions tagged .