Sometimes latex does not care that two columns be of exactly the same height. Here is an example, where on the first page the left column is about a millimeter longer than the right one:



Is the problem caused by the fixed paragraph space lengths? If yes, how to reduce/enlarge them but still have the vertical stretching working?

  • The default for twocolumn is \flushbottom so vertical stretch space will stretch so the columns have equal last baselines. If you are not seeing that then if you show an example someone can debug. Otherwise not really possible to guess an answer to your question. – David Carlisle Oct 27 '20 at 23:10
  • the standard two column mechanism does not balance the columns it always fills the left hand column first (unlike, say, multicol package columns) so I do not understand your comment about balancing above. – David Carlisle Oct 27 '20 at 23:13
  • I added an example. – scriptfoo Oct 27 '20 at 23:40

LaTeX uses \flushbottom by default in twocolum, so that any stretchabke vertical space is stretched so that the baselines of the last row in each column line up.

In your example though you have removed all stretchable space, setting parskip to a fixed 6pt, and having no section headings or display math on the page means that there is no space that can be stretched. as \parskip is not a multiple of \baselineskip the columns are necessarily of different lengths as they have different numbers of paragraph breaks.

You could use


if you want all lines to line up:

enter image description here

Although that still has no stretchable space to account for any items that are of different heights.

Or use a flexible \parskip such as

\setlength{\parskip}{6pt plus 2pt}

enter image description here

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