I'm working on this short paper about cardinal invariants in Cichoń's diagram. I wanted to somehow draw in tex. I have no previous experience in drawing any kind of diagrams in tex. Usinge package amscd and this code:

@. cov(\mathcal{N}) @>>> non(\mathcal{M}) @>>> cof(\mathcal{M}) @>>>
cof(\mathcal{N}) @>>> 2^{\aleph_0}\\
@. @AAA @AAA @AAA @AAA\\
@. @AAA \mathfrak{b} @>>> \mathfrak{d} @. @AAA\\
@. @AAA @AAA @AAA @AAA\\
\aleph_1 @>>> add(\mathcal{N}) @>>> add(\mathcal{M}) @>>> cov(\mathcal{M}) @>>>

I end up with the following result:

enter image description here

Is there any way I can make these sequences of arrows on left and right just 1 long one? Or maybe there's a simpler way to do this?

  • I would suggest the tikz-cd package instead. The amscd package is to say the least, minimally documented.
    – Alan Munn
    Dec 13 '20 at 0:33
  • 1
    In the future, when you post a question, please provide a "Minimal Working Example" (MWE) that starts with \documentclass, includes all relevant \usepackage commands, ends with \end{document} and compiles without errors, even if it does not produce your desired output. Welcome to TeX.SX!
    – Sandy G
    Dec 13 '20 at 1:17

Here is a solution with tikz-cd.

enter image description here

I used the upright shape for the cardinal characteristics, which is how I've seen them. If you prefer the slanted shape, I recommend you use \mathit{...}. Otherwise the spacing is off. I declared them as math operators for convenience.


\usepackage{mathtools,amsfonts} % mathtools to use \DeclareMathOperator command



    & \cov(\mathcal{N})\arrow[r] & \non(\mathcal{M})\arrow[r] & \cof(\mathcal{M})\arrow[r] & \cof(\mathcal{N})\arrow[r] & 2^{\aleph_0}\\
    & & \mathfrak{b}\arrow[u]\arrow[r] & \mathfrak{d}\arrow[u]\\
\aleph_1\arrow[r] & \add(\mathcal{N})\arrow[uu]\arrow[r] & \add(\mathcal{M})\arrow[r]\arrow[u] & \cov(\mathcal{M})\arrow[r]\arrow[u] & \non(\mathcal{N})\arrow[uu]


Just for fun, two alternatives, although I recommend tikz-cd.

Hand made diagram

enter image description here



  \big\uparrow \\
  #1 \\
\operatorname{cov}(\mathcal{N}) & \lto &
\operatorname{non}(\mathcal{M}) & \lto &
\operatorname{cof}(\mathcal{M}) & \lto &
\operatorname{cof}(\mathcal{N}) & \lto &
2^{\aleph_0} \\
&& \left\uparrow\vphantom{\middlecolumn{\mathfrak{b}}}\right.
&& \middlecolumn{\mathfrak{b}} &
 & \middlecolumn{\mathfrak{d}}
&& \left\uparrow\vphantom{\middlecolumn{\mathfrak{b}}}\right. \\
\aleph_1 & \lto &
\operatorname{add}(\mathcal{N}) & \lto &
\operatorname{add}(\mathcal{M}) & \lto &
\operatorname{cov}(\mathcal{M}) & \lto &
\operatorname{non}(\mathcal{N}) &



enter image description here



\operatorname{cov}(\mathcal{N}) \ar[r] &
\operatorname{non}(\mathcal{M}) \ar[r] &
\operatorname{cof}(\mathcal{M}) \ar[r] &
\operatorname{cof}(\mathcal{N}) \ar[r] &
2^{\aleph_0} \\
&& \mathfrak{b} \ar[r] \ar[u] & \mathfrak{d} \ar[u] \\
\aleph_1 \ar[r] &
\operatorname{add}(\mathcal{N}) \ar[r] \ar[uu] &
\operatorname{add}(\mathcal{M}) \ar[r] \ar[u] &
\operatorname{cov}(\mathcal{M}) \ar[r] \ar[u] &
\operatorname{non}(\mathcal{N}) \ar[uu]


Your Answer

By clicking “Post Your Answer”, you agree to our terms of service, privacy policy and cookie policy

Not the answer you're looking for? Browse other questions tagged or ask your own question.