I am using spbasic for typesetting a Springer Journal paper. References as listed inconsistently when they are listed. dot and space are missing after the author year format when author names have et al. in it. Following figure shows the inconsistency.

enter image description here

I am using


My question is how to get dot and space after the starting author et al. (year) citation style

  • Off-topic: Please add the instruction \hyphenation{double-stein} to your preamble. This will prevent the horrendous-looking 'Dou-blestein' outcome from happening.
    – Mico
    Jan 31, 2021 at 9:58

1 Answer 1


Here's an excerpt from the header of the file spbasic.bst:

%% For use with the natbib package (see below). Default is author-year citations. %%
%%   When citations are numbered, please use \usepackage[numbers]{natbib}.        %%

In short, one must load the natbib citation management package in on wishes to employ the spbasic bibliography style correctly.

If you wish to generate numeric-style citation call-outs, be sure to load the natbib package with the option numbers:


Addendum: Here's a full-fledged minimum working example, which employs the natbib package. Note that the citation call-outs are not repeated at the start of each formatted bib entry. I've highlighted the citation call-outs as well as the formatted name blocks in the bib entries.

enter image description here

% see https://dl.acm.org/doi/abs/10.1145/1282040.1282058 and
%     https://dl.acm.org/doi/10.5555/1018435.1021693
author = {Adamo-Villani, Nicoletta and Wright, Kelly},
title = {{SMILE}: An Immersive Learning Game for Deaf and Hearing Children},
year = {2007},
isbn = {9781450318303},
publisher = {Association for Computing Machinery},
address = {New York, NY, USA},
url = {https://doi.org/10.1145/1282040.1282058},
doi = {10.1145/1282040.1282058},
booktitle = {ACM SIGGRAPH 2007 Educators Program},
pages = {17–es},
keywords = {virtual reality, 3D animation, virtual learning environments, sign language education},
location = {San Diego, California},
series = {SIGGRAPH '07}
author = {Adamo-Villani, Nicoletta and Doublestein, John and Martin, Zachary},
title  = {The {MathSigner}: An Interactive Learning Tool for {American Sign Language} {K-3} Mathematics},
year   = {2004},
isbn   = {0769521770},
publisher = {IEEE Computer Society},
address = {USA},
booktitle = {Proceedings of the Information Visualisation, Eighth International Conference},
pages   = {713–716},
numpages = {4},
series  = {IV~'04}

\usepackage{microtype} % optional

\cite{avw:2007}, \cite{avdm:2004}
  • My question is how to get dot and space after the starting author et al. (year) citation style
    – tex
    Jan 31, 2021 at 1:11
  • 1
    @tex - There seems to be some unfortunate confusion between (a) the format of the citation call-outs (e.g., author et al. (year)) in the body of the document and (b) the format of the typeset bibliographic entries. I know of no BibTeX bibliography style that would deliberately clog up the bibliography section by prefixing/repeating the citation call-out to the formatted entry.
    – Mico
    Jan 31, 2021 at 2:58
  • @tex - I've posted an addendum in which I highlight the difference between the citation call-outs and the formatted bibliographic entries.
    – Mico
    Jan 31, 2021 at 10:07

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