# How do I typeset the caron on the letter l to appear as l' since \v{l} doesn't seem to work correctly?

I need to refer to a paper by the Czech mathematician Daniel Král' in a document and in the bibliography, and I'm slightly confused about the correct way to typeset the accented letter l'.

It appears that the apostrophe-like accent attached to the letter l is in fact not an apostrophe but a caron that is typeset differently from the usual "inverted hat" shape that appears over a letter. From the same Wikipedia article, in the subsection Writing and printing carons:

In printed Czech and Slovak text, the caron combined with certain letters (lower-case ť, ď, ľ, and upper-case Ľ) is reduced to a small stroke.

And, later on in the same subsection:

Although the stroke looks similar to an apostrophe, there is a significant difference in kerning. Using an apostrophe in place of a caron looks very unprofessional ...

When I try to typeset the caron the usual way as \v{l} this produces the "inverted hat" shape over the letter l, so I guess that all carons are typeset in a uniform manner by \v. Is there any way to properly typeset the caron on this letter (and the other few exceptions mentioned in the Wikipedia article)?

For completeness, I am using AMSRefs with BibTeX to insert my references. I have not loaded either of the inputenc or fontenc packages, because I have not found the need for them yet (and I am not quite familiar with how to use them correctly), but I am open to any type of solution.

It seems you are using the legacy OT1 encoding

\documentclass{article}

%\usepackage[T1]{fontenc}
\begin{document}

[\v{l}]
\end{document}


You should almost always use T1 encoding for any latin script documents

\documentclass{article}

\usepackage[T1]{fontenc}
\begin{document}

[\v{l}]
\end{document}


OT1 is a the original TeX 7bit encoding that has no accented characters, so \v{...} always places a standard v accent over the base, but other accents such as \' for acute similarly use a constructed accent so correct hyphenation of any words with accented letters will be impossible.

That said, it would be possible to declare this composite even for OT1 encoding

\documentclass{article}

\DeclareTextCompositeCommand{\v}{OT1}{l}{%
l\kern-.1em\raisebox{1.5ex}{,}}
%\usepackage[T1]{fontenc}
\begin{document}

[\v{l}]
\end{document}


In your question you typed the name with l<apostophe> but if you use the l caron character U+013e (as used in your wikipeda link for example) then you can type the character directly rather than use \v{l}, getting the same results as above. For completeness here is the result in luatex.

\documentclass{article}

\begin{document}

Daniel Kráľ

\end{document}

• And if a publisher allows fontspec, that’s even better. Feb 13, 2021 at 16:59
• @Davislor well yes but where's the tex fun in having it just work automatically. Feb 13, 2021 at 17:01
• @Davislor luatex example added :-) Feb 13, 2021 at 17:09