4

How do I modify \underbrace such that there is more vertical space between the formula and the beginning of the braces?

\documentclass[a4paper,13pt]{scrartcl}
\usepackage[utf8]{inputenc}

\usepackage{mathtools}
\usepackage{amsmath}
\usepackage{amsthm}
\usepackage{amsfonts}
\usepackage{amssymb}
\usepackage{amstext}

\begin{document}

\begin{align*}
\liminf _{M \ni m \rightarrow \infty} \rho_{m} \geq 1
    &-\frac{2}{\mu \varepsilon} C_{H} \overbrace{\limsup _{M \ni m \rightarrow \infty} \Delta_{m}}^{=0} \\
    &-\frac{4}{\mu \delta} \underbrace{\limsup _{M \ni m \rightarrow \infty} \sup _{d \in B_{\Delta m}(0)} \left[ \frac{f(x^{m}+d)-f(x^{m})-\phi(x^{m}, \Delta_{m} ; d)}{\Delta_{m}} \right]}_{\leq 0} \geq 1 \, .
\end{align*}

\end{document}

Here is a picture of the result enter image description here

2
  • Yes, indeed I would like to extend the vertical spacing between the limsup's and the braces Commented Feb 18, 2021 at 16:26
  • 3
    Off-topic: Since (a) the [utf8] option is the default these days when loading inputenc, (b) amsmath is loaded automatically by mathtools, (c) amstext is loaded automatically by smsmath, and (d) amsfonts is loaded automatically by amssymb, your preamble may be streamlined to \usepackage{mathtools,amssymb,amsthm}.
    – Mico
    Commented Feb 18, 2021 at 17:57

1 Answer 1

3

In case you want to retain manual control over the vertical distance between the first and second arguments of \overbrace, I suggest you change \Delta to \Delta^{\mathstrut}, where \mathstrut is defined in the LaTeX kernel (and in PlainTeX) as \vphantom{(}.

I would also like to suggest that you insert \textstyle directives at the start of the second arguments of \overbrace and \underbrace in order to give the associated material just a bit more visual prominence. And, to keep the arguments of \limsup and \sup from getting too close, I'd insert \, ("thinspace") between \limsup_{M\ni m \rightarrow \infty} and `\sup_{d\in B_{\Delta m}(0)}

enter image description here

\documentclass[a4paper,13pt]{scrartcl}
%%\usepackage[utf8]{inputenc} % that's the default nowawadays

\usepackage{mathtools}
%%\usepackage{amsmath}  % <-- is loaded automatically by 'mathtools'
\usepackage{amsthm}
%%\usepackage{amsfonts} % <-- is loaded automatically by 'amssymb'
\usepackage{amssymb}
%%\usepackage{amstext}  % <-- is loaded automatically by 'amsmath'

\begin{document}

\begin{align*}
\liminf _{M \ni m \rightarrow \infty} \rho_{m} \geq 1
    &-\frac{2}{\mu \varepsilon} C_{H} 
     \overbrace{\limsup_{\mathclap{M \ni m \rightarrow\infty}} 
     \Delta_{m}^{\mathstrut}}^{\textstyle =0} \\
    &-\frac{4}{\mu \delta} 
     \underbrace{
     \limsup_{M\ni m \rightarrow \infty} \, 
     \sup_{d\in B_{\Delta m}(0)} 
     \biggl[ 
     \frac{f(x^{m}+d)-f(x^{m})-\phi(x^{m}, \Delta_{m} ; d)}{\Delta_{m}} 
     \biggr]}_{\textstyle \leq 0}
     \geq 1 \, .
\end{align*}

\end{document}

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