1

Consider the code:

\documentclass[12pt]{book}

%\usepackage[para]{footmisc}
\usepackage{footmisc}

\usepackage{perpage} 
\MakePerPage{footnote} 
\renewcommand{\thefootnote}{\fnsymbol{footnote}}

\begin{document}

A sentence.\footnote{First footnote}
Another sentence.\footnote{Second footnote}
Another sentence.\footnote{Third footnote}
A sentence.\footnote{Fourth footnote}
Another sentence.\footnote{Fifth footnote}
Another sentence.\footnote{Sixth footnote}
Another sentence.\footnote{Seventh footnote. This is a longer footnote to see what happens when it continues on to a second line.}
\end{document}

which produces the output

enter image description here

Notice the indentation of the footnotemarks and the close proximity they are to the corresponding notes.

However, when instead of running the code using \usepackage{footmisc} I run it with \usepackage[para]{footmisc}, I get the following display:

enter image description here

Notice (1) the indentation of the footnotemarks is removed, and (2) the additional spacing that is imposed between each footnotemark and its corresponding note.

QUESTION: What is causing this to happen and how may I override it; that is, how may I run the code with \usepackage[para]{footmisc} keeping the former indentation of the footnotemarks, as well as the closeness of the note to the footnotemark as appears in the first output?

Thank you.

1
  • 2
    The [para] option makes footnotes be typeset as an online list within a single paragraph. What replaces the indentation of footnotemarks is the horizontal separation between foot notes.
    – Bernard
    Mar 8, 2021 at 19:29

1 Answer 1

2

Both issues arise from definitions in the footmisc package.

1ST ISSUE: GAP AFTER MARK

I found that hardwiring an \unskip as the initial text of the footnote took care of the gap after the symbol in para mode.

This led me to hope the issue was a stray space inserted via a missing %. Bad news...I found no such occurrence in the package. But best news!! I found where the space was intentionally introduced:

  \long\def\@makefntext#1{\leavevmode
    \@makefnmark\nobreak
    \hskip.5em\relax#1%
  }

The 0.5em \hskip is the source of the gap. Removing the \hskip.5em from the definition removes the gap altogether.

\makeatletter
  \long\def\@makefntext#1{\leavevmode
    \@makefnmark\nobreak
    \relax#1%
  }
\makeatother

enter image description here

2ND ISSUE: INDENT

The above takes care of the unseemly gap after the mark, but not the indent. It is not clear if the OP wants all lines beginning with a new footnote to be indented, or just the first line of footnotes.

So I address here both possibilities. The relevant macro is

  \renewcommand\@footnotetext[1]{%
    \insert\footins{%
      \ifFN@setspace
        \let\baselinestretch\FN@baselinestretch
      \fi
      \reset@font\footnotesize
      \interlinepenalty\interfootnotelinepenalty
      \splittopskip\footnotesep
      \splitmaxdepth \dp\strutbox
      \floatingpenalty\@MM
      \hsize\columnwidth
      \@parboxrestore
      \protected@edef\@currentlabel{\csname p@footnote\endcsname\@thefnmark}%
      \color@begingroup
        \setbox\FN@tempboxa=\hbox{%
%% NEXT LINE IS ADDED IN IF MULTI-LINE INDENTS DESIRED
  \mbox{}%
%% NEXT LINE IS ADDED IN FOR BOTH CASES
  \hskip\footglue\nobreak
%%
          \@makefntext{\ignorespaces#1\strut
            \penalty-10\relax
%% NEXT LINE IS COMMENTED OUT IN BOTH CASES
%            \hskip\footglue
          }% end of \@makefntext parameter
        }% end of \hbox
        \dp\FN@tempboxa=0pt
        \ifFN@etex
          \ht\FN@tempboxa=\dimexpr\wd\FN@tempboxa *
                          \footnotebaselineskip / \columnwidth\relax
        \else
          \ht\FN@tempboxa=\fudgefactor\wd\FN@tempboxa
        \fi
        \box\FN@tempboxa
      \color@endgroup
    }%
    \FN@mf@prepare
  }

Look for the comments starting with %% to zero in on my adjustments. They amount to moving the (unbreakable) glue from behind the footnote to in front of it.

In both cases, one line is commented out and one or two lines are added in. For the shown definition above, indent is provided whenever a line begins with a new footnote:

enter image description here

If I switch to the initial-indent solution, by commenting out the \mbox{} line that had been added in, I get this:

enter image description here


In summary, here is an MWE that shows both fixes:

\documentclass[12pt]{book}

\usepackage[para]{footmisc}
%\usepackage{footmisc}

\usepackage{perpage} 
\MakePerPage{footnote} 
\renewcommand{\thefootnote}{\fnsymbol{footnote}}

\makeatletter
  \long\def\@makefntext#1{\leavevmode
    \@makefnmark\nobreak
    \relax#1%
  }

  \renewcommand\@footnotetext[1]{%
    \insert\footins{%
      \ifFN@setspace
        \let\baselinestretch\FN@baselinestretch
      \fi
      \reset@font\footnotesize
      \interlinepenalty\interfootnotelinepenalty
      \splittopskip\footnotesep
      \splitmaxdepth \dp\strutbox
      \floatingpenalty\@MM
      \hsize\columnwidth
      \@parboxrestore
      \protected@edef\@currentlabel{\csname p@footnote\endcsname\@thefnmark}%
      \color@begingroup
        \setbox\FN@tempboxa=\hbox{%
%% NEXT LINE IS ADDED IN IF MULTI-LINE INDENTS DESIRED
  \mbox{}%
%% NEXT LINE IS ADDED IN FOR BOTH CASES
  \hskip\footglue\nobreak
%%
          \@makefntext{\ignorespaces#1\strut
            \penalty-10\relax
%% NEXT LINE IS COMMENTED OUT IN BOTH CASES
%            \hskip\footglue
          }% end of \@makefntext parameter
        }% end of \hbox
        \dp\FN@tempboxa=0pt
        \ifFN@etex
          \ht\FN@tempboxa=\dimexpr\wd\FN@tempboxa *
                          \footnotebaselineskip / \columnwidth\relax
        \else
          \ht\FN@tempboxa=\fudgefactor\wd\FN@tempboxa
        \fi
        \box\FN@tempboxa
      \color@endgroup
    }%
    \FN@mf@prepare
  }
\makeatother

\begin{document}

A sentence.\footnote{First footnote}
Another sentence.\footnote{Second footnote}
Another sentence.\footnote{Third footnote}
A sentence.\footnote{Fourth footnote}
Another sentence.\footnote{Fifth footnote}
Another sentence.\footnote{Sixth footnote}
Another sentence.\footnote{Seventh footnote. This is a longer footnote to see what happens when it continues on to a second line.}
\end{document}
1
  • 1
    Thank you for this very detailed and excellent answer. It is most helpful.
    – DDS
    Mar 10, 2021 at 23:36

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