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I am writing my thesis in law using biblatex-chicago. We are writing in Danish and when citing articles, books etc. we are using the postnote to indicate the specific page, section etc.

When citing @books using \autocite, the reference in the footnote has no prefix in the postnote, but when citing @jurisdiction, @legislation and @legal it prints "at" as the prefix in the postnote.

I have tried using \DeclareFieldFormat{postnote}{#1} and \DeclareFieldFormat{multipostnote}{#1} but it does not seem to work.

How do I omit prefixes in the postnote of these entry types?

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biblatex-chicago is an extremely complicated style bundle, because it tries to implement the requirements of the Chicago Manual of Style as closely as possible with biblatex. As such it can be fairly difficult to modify biblatex-chicago to deviate from CMoS requirements. Some changes need lots of code, others have the potential to break desired behaviour in unexpected places.

As such I cannot guarantee that the following code does not have unintended side-effects; doubly so because there is no example document (MWE: I've just been asked to write a minimal working example (MWE), what is that?) in the question.

\renewrobustcmd*{\mkjuridprefix}[1]{#1}%

Your \DeclareFieldFormat{postnote} did not work, because biblatex-chicago uses type-specific formats to typeset the postnote field, but \DeclareFieldFormat{postnote} only changes the non-type-specific format. You could have used the starred version \DeclareFieldFormat*{postnote}

\DeclareFieldFormat*{postnote}{% Changed for page compression option
  \ifboolexpr{%
    togl {cms@comprange}%
    and
    test {\ifpages{#1}}%
  }%
  {\iffieldundef{pagination}%
    {\mkcomprange{#1}}%
    {\mkcomprange[{\mkpageprefix[pagination]}]{#1}}}%
  {\iffieldundef{pagination}%
    {#1}%
    {\mkpageprefix[pagination]{#1}}}}%

to get rid of all type-specific formats first. (For more examples on type-specific format, see Remove Quotation Marks from Style)

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