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table

How can I center the cells from the columns Theory and Hypothesis and remove the excessive whitespace from the cell Financial constraint?

\usepackage{multirow}
\usepackage{booktabs}
\usepackage{array}
\usepackage{tabularx}
\renewcommand{\tabularxcolumn}[1]{m{#1}}

\begin{table}
\centering
\begin{tabularx}{\textwidth}{l X X X} \toprule

Theory & Hypothesis & Major characteristics & References \\ \hline
\multirow{3}{*}{Tax- Smoothing} & \multirow{2}{*}{\hsize}{When the government raises revenue, there is a deadweight loss in the economy} & Unanticipated fiscal needs & Barro, 1979 \\
\cline{3-4}
&  & Anticipated fiscal needs & Lucas  Stokey, 1983 \\ 
\midrule
 \multirow{3}{*}{Safe asset provision} & \multirow{3}{*}{\hsize}{Companies and families are financially constrained and cannot operate in the credit market as freely as government} & Financial constraints & Woodford, 1990 \\
 \cline{3-4}
 &  & Precautionary private savings & Ayigari  McGrattan, 1998 Holmström  Tirole, 1998 \\
 \cline{3-4}
 &  & Global capital flows and interest rates & Aizenman  Marion, 2011 \\ 
 \midrule
\multirow{2}{*}{Dynamic Efficiency} & \multirow{2}{*}{\hsize}{Private sector does not internalize fiscal policies’ consequences infinitely into the future and beyond} & \multirow{2}{*}{\hsize}{Dynamic inefficiencies in the economy and over accumulated capital can lead to an optimal increase in government debt} & Diamond, 1965 \\
  &  &  & Blanchard, 1985 \\
 \toprule
\end{tabularx}
\end{table}
2
  • 1
    please always post a test document, posting usepackage and tabularx with no \begin{document} or \documentclass just makes it harder for anyone wanting to help to make a test file that matches your image May 13, 2021 at 19:54
  • Oh sorry! my bad! May 15, 2021 at 1:57

2 Answers 2

1

Probably the following is closer to the expected output? (Since no documentclass/margin sizes were given, I guessed.)

enter image description here

\documentclass{article}
\usepackage{geometry}
\usepackage{multirow}
\usepackage{booktabs}
\usepackage{array}
\usepackage{tabularx}
\begin{document}
\begin{table}
\centering
\begin{tabularx}{\textwidth}{l p{4cm} X X} 
\toprule
Theory & Hypothesis & Major characteristics & References \\ \midrule
\multirow{4}{*}{Tax- Smoothing} & \multirow{4}{=}{When the government raises revenue, there is a deadweight loss in the economy} & Unanticipated fiscal needs & Barro, 1979 \\
\cmidrule{3-4}
&  & Anticipated fiscal needs & Lucas  Stokey, 1983 \\ 
\midrule
 \multirow{7}{*}{Safe asset provision} & \multirow{7}{=}{Companies and families are financially constrained and cannot operate in the credit market as freely as government} & Financial constraints & Woodford, 1990 \\
 \cmidrule{3-4}
 &  & Precautionary private savings & Ayigari  McGrattan, 1998 Holmström  Tirole, 1998 \\
 \cmidrule{3-4}
 &  & Global capital flows and interest rates & Aizenman  Marion, 2011 \\ 
 \midrule
\multirow{8}{*}{Dynamic Efficiency} & \multirow{8}{=}{Private sector does not internalize fiscal policies’ consequences infinitely into the future and beyond} & Dynamic inefficiencies in the economy and over accumulated capital can lead to an optimal increase in government debt & Diamond, 1965 \\
  &  &  & Blanchard, 1985 \\
 \bottomrule
\end{tabularx}
\end{table}

\end{document}
1
1

As is usually the case, this would look a lot better using p not m and so top align not vertical centre the entries but...

enter image description here

\documentclass{article}

\usepackage{booktabs}
\usepackage{tabularx}
\renewcommand{\tabularxcolumn}[1]{m{#1}}
\begin{document}
\begin{table}
\centering
\begin{tabularx}{\textwidth}{p{2cm} X l}
\toprule
Theory & Hypothesis & 
\begin{tabular}{@{}*2{>{\raggedright\arraybackslash}m{2cm}}@{}}
Major characteristics & References
\end{tabular} \\
\midrule
Tax-\newline Smoothing &
When the government raises revenue, there is a deadweight loss in the economy&
\begin{tabular}{@{}*2{>{\raggedright\arraybackslash}m{2cm}}@{}}
Unanticipated fiscal needs & Barro, 1979\\
Anticipated fiscal needs & Lucas  Stokey, 1983
\end{tabular} \\
\midrule
Safe asset\newline provision & 
Companies and families are financially constrained and cannot operate in the credit market as freely as government &
\begin{tabular}{@{}*2{>{\raggedright\arraybackslash}m{2cm}}@{}}
 Financial constraints & Woodford, 1990 \\
Precautionary private savings & Ayigari  McGrattan, 1998 Holmström  Tirole, 1998 \\
 Global capital flows and interest rates & Aizenman  Marion, 2011  
\end{tabular} \\
 \midrule
Dynamic\newline Efficiency &
Private sector does not internalize fiscal policies’ consequences infinitely into the future and beyond &
\begin{tabular}{@{}*2{>{\raggedright\arraybackslash}m{2cm}}@{}}
Dynamic inefficiencies in the economy and over accumulated capital can lead to an optimal increase in government debt
 & Diamond, 1965 \\
 & Blanchard, 1985
\end{tabular}\\
 \bottomrule
\end{tabularx}
\end{table}
\end{document}

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