# Commutative diagram for kernel trick definition

I'm trying to draw a commutative diagram for kernel trick. I'm trying the following code:

$\begin{tikzcd} &X \arrow{r}{\Phi} & H& \\% X \times X \arrow[swap]{dr}{\pi_X} \arrow[swap]{ur}{\pi_X} \arrow{r}{k} & \mathbb{R} && \mathcal{H} \times \mathcal{H} \arrow[swap]{ul}{\pi_\mathcal{H}} \arrow[swap]{dl}{\pi_\mathcal{H}} \arrow{l}{\langle \cdot, \cdot \rangle_\mathcal{H}}\\% &X \arrow{r}{\Phi} & H& \end{tikzcd}$


This code produces that diagram:

With 2 errors:

No shape named tikz@f@5-2-3' is known. I think the culprit is a tikzcd arrow in cell 2-4.
No shape named tikz@f@5-2-3' is known. I think the culprit is a tikzcd arrow in cell 2-4.


Actually, the diagram is almost nice except that k arrow is too short and \mathbb{R} is not centered. I guess the errors are all about this, but I'm quite new to tikz, so don't fully understand this errors. Can someone shred some light on the errors and ways to improve the diagram? Thanks.

You should use one more column, but you can also shorten the arrows that go over this middle columns.

I used the “modern” syntax for arrows, that I find much handier.

\documentclass{article}
\usepackage{amsmath,amssymb,tikz-cd}

\begin{document}

$\begin{tikzcd} &X \arrow[rr,"\Phi"] &[-1.5em] &[-1.5em] H \\ X \times X \arrow[dr,"\pi_X"'] \arrow[ur,"\pi_X"] \arrow[rr,"k"] && \mathbb{R} && \mathcal{H} \times \mathcal{H} \arrow[ul,"\pi_\mathcal{H}"'] \arrow[dl,"\pi_\mathcal{H}"] \arrow[ll,"{\langle \cdot, \cdot \rangle_\mathcal{H}}"'] \\ &X \arrow[rr,"\Phi"] && H \end{tikzcd}$

\end{document}


Note: I left the two plain H's, but I believe they should be \mathcal{H} as well.

• Thank you for provided answer and code! Yeah, I've made a typo with H, there's of course \mathcal{H}! Commented Jun 17, 2021 at 17:33