Is there any way to install the overleaf server without using Docker. I have already installed a full TeX Live distribution so I don't want to do that again in docker.
Honestly, if you think installing texlive within any environment was much work, you won't like setting up something as complex as overleaf. Having an isolated texlive in a docker container makes things easier, not harder.
So, while you could just look into the Dockerfile that sets up said docker container and do the same to your host, it's strongly advisable to not do that. So, don't do that. They probably supply a docker image where everything is installed already, so this is literally no extra work for you!