0

I'm using bibtex with a custom .bst file for the thesis. Unfortunately, the .bst file doesn’t produce a comma separating the author names when there are only two authors, and I need to add this comma.

In the .bst file, here is the format.names function:

INTEGERS { nameptr namesleft numnames }

FUNCTION {format.names}
{ 's :=
  #1 'nameptr :=
  s num.names$ 'numnames :=
  numnames 'namesleft :=
    { namesleft #0 > }
    { s nameptr "{vv~}{ll}{, jj}{, f.}" format.name$ 't :=   % last name first  this serve the day
      nameptr #1 >
    { namesleft #1 >
        { ", " * t * }
        { numnames #2 >
        { "," * }
        'skip$
          if$
          t "others" =
        { " \emph{et~al.}" * }
        { " \& " * t * }    % and
          if$
        }
      if$
    }
    't
      if$
      nameptr #1 + 'nameptr :=
      namesleft #1 - 'namesleft :=
    }
  while$
}

And the complete script for the .bst is

 ENTRY
  { address
    author
    booktitle
    chapter
    edition
    editor
    howpublished
    institution
    journal
    key
%    month      not used in apalike
    note
    number
    organization
    pages
    publisher
    school
    series
    title
    type
    URL    % added
    volume
    year
  }
  {}
  { label extra.label sort.label }

INTEGERS { output.state before.all mid.sentence after.sentence after.block }

FUNCTION {init.state.consts}
{ #0 'before.all :=
  #1 'mid.sentence :=
  #2 'after.sentence :=
  #3 'after.block :=
}

STRINGS { s t }

FUNCTION {output.nonnull}
{ 's :=
  output.state mid.sentence =
    { ", " * write$ }
    { output.state after.block =
    { add.period$ write$
      newline$
      "\newblock " write$
    }
    { output.state before.all =
        'write$
        { add.period$ " " * write$ }
      if$
    }
      if$
      mid.sentence 'output.state :=
    }
  if$
  s
}

FUNCTION {output}
{ duplicate$ empty$
    'pop$
    'output.nonnull
  if$
}

FUNCTION {output.check}
{ 't :=
  duplicate$ empty$
    { pop$ "empty " t * " in " * cite$ * warning$ }
    'output.nonnull
  if$
}

%                   apalike needs this function because
%                   the year has special punctuation;
%                   apalike ignores the month
FUNCTION {output.year.check}
{ year empty$
    { "empty year in " cite$ * warning$ }
    { write$
      " (" year * extra.label * ")" *
      mid.sentence 'output.state :=
    }
  if$
}

FUNCTION {output.bibitem}
{ newline$
  "\bibitem[" write$
  label write$
  "]{" write$
  cite$ write$
  "}" write$
  newline$
  ""
  before.all 'output.state :=
}

FUNCTION {fin.entry}
{ add.period$
  write$
  newline$
}

FUNCTION {new.block}
{ output.state before.all =
    'skip$
    { after.block 'output.state := }
  if$
}

FUNCTION {new.sentence}
{ output.state after.block =
    'skip$
    { output.state before.all =
    'skip$
    { after.sentence 'output.state := }
      if$
    }
  if$
}

FUNCTION {not}
{   { #0 }
    { #1 }
  if$
}

FUNCTION {and}   % and 
{   'skip$
    { pop$ #0 }
  if$
}

FUNCTION {or}
{   { pop$ #1 }
    'skip$
  if$
}

FUNCTION {new.block.checkb}
{ empty$
  swap$ empty$
  and
    'skip$
    'new.block
  if$
}

FUNCTION {field.or.null}
{ duplicate$ empty$
    { pop$ "" }
    'skip$
  if$
}

FUNCTION {emphasize}
{ duplicate$ empty$
    { pop$ "" }
    { "{\em " swap$ * "}" * }
  if$
}

INTEGERS { nameptr namesleft numnames }

FUNCTION {format.names}
{ 's :=
  #1 'nameptr :=
  s num.names$ 'numnames :=
  numnames 'namesleft :=
    { namesleft #0 > }
    { s nameptr "{vv~}{ll}{, jj}{, f.}" format.name$ 't :=   % last name first  this serve the day
      nameptr #1 >
    { namesleft #1 >
        { ", " * t * }
        { numnames #2 >
        { "," * }
        'skip$
          if$
          t "others" =
        { " \emph{et~al.}" * }
        { " \& " * t * }    % and
          if$
        }
      if$
    }
    't
      if$
      nameptr #1 + 'nameptr :=
      namesleft #1 - 'namesleft :=
    }
  while$
}

FUNCTION {format.authors}
{ author empty$
    { "" }
    { author format.names }
  if$
}

FUNCTION {format.key}           % this function is just for apalike
{ empty$
    { key field.or.null }
    { "" }       % not here
  if$
}

FUNCTION {format.editors}
{ editor empty$
    { "" }     % not here
    { editor format.names
      editor num.names$ #1 >
    { ", editors" * }
    { ", editor" * }
      if$
    }
  if$
}

FUNCTION {format.title}
{ title empty$
    { "" }
    { title "t" change.case$ }
  if$
}

FUNCTION {n.dashify}
{ 't :=
  ""
    { t empty$ not }
    { t #1 #1 substring$ "-" =
    { t #1 #2 substring$ "--" = not
        { "--" *
          t #2 global.max$ substring$ 't :=
        }
        {   { t #1 #1 substring$ "-" = }
        { "-" *
          t #2 global.max$ substring$ 't :=
        }
          while$
        }
      if$
    }
    { t #1 #1 substring$ *
      t #2 global.max$ substring$ 't :=
    }
      if$
    }
  while$
}

FUNCTION {format.btitle}
{ title emphasize
}

FUNCTION {tie.or.space.connect}
{ duplicate$ text.length$ #3 <
    { "~" }
    { " " }
  if$
  swap$ * *
}

FUNCTION {either.or.check}
{ empty$
    'pop$
    { "can't use both " swap$ * " fields in " * cite$ * warning$ }
  if$
}

FUNCTION {format.bvolume}
{ volume empty$
    { "" }
    { "volume" volume tie.or.space.connect
      series empty$
    'skip$
    { " of " * series emphasize * }
      if$
      "volume and number" number either.or.check
    }
  if$
}

FUNCTION {format.number.series}
{ volume empty$
    { number empty$
    { series field.or.null }
    { output.state mid.sentence =
        { "number" }
        { "Number" }
      if$
      number tie.or.space.connect
      series empty$
        { "there's a number but no series in " cite$ * warning$ }
        { " in " * series * }
      if$
    }
      if$
    }
    { "" }
  if$
}

FUNCTION {format.edition}
{ edition empty$
    { "" }
    { output.state mid.sentence =
    { edition "l" change.case$ " edition" * }
    { edition "t" change.case$ " edition" * }
      if$
    }
  if$
}

INTEGERS { multiresult }

FUNCTION {multi.page.check}
{ 't :=
  #0 'multiresult :=
    { multiresult not
      t empty$ not
      and   % and
    }
    { t #1 #1 substring$
      duplicate$ "-" =
      swap$ duplicate$ "," =
      swap$ "+" =
      or or
    { #1 'multiresult := }
    { t #2 global.max$ substring$ 't := }
      if$
    }
  while$
  multiresult
}

FUNCTION {format.pages}
{ pages empty$
    { "" }
    { pages multi.page.check
    { "pages" pages n.dashify tie.or.space.connect }
    { "page" pages tie.or.space.connect }
      if$
    }
  if$
}

FUNCTION {format.vol.num.pages}
{ volume field.or.null
  number empty$
    'skip$
    { "(" number * ")" * *
      volume empty$
    { "there's a number but no volume in " cite$ * warning$ }
    'skip$
      if$
    }
  if$
  pages empty$
    'skip$
    { duplicate$ empty$
    { pop$ format.pages }
    { "," * pages n.dashify * }
      if$
    }
  if$
}

FUNCTION {format.chapter.pages}
{ chapter empty$
    'format.pages
    { type empty$
    { "chapter" }
    { type "l" change.case$ }
      if$
      chapter tie.or.space.connect
      pages empty$
    'skip$
    { ", " * format.pages * }
      if$
    }
  if$
}

FUNCTION {format.in.ed.booktitle}
{ booktitle empty$
    { "" }
    { editor empty$
    { "In " booktitle emphasize * }
    { "In " format.editors * ", " * booktitle emphasize * }
      if$
    }
  if$
}

FUNCTION {format.thesis.type}
{ type empty$
    'skip$
    { pop$
      type "t" change.case$
    }
  if$
}

FUNCTION {format.tr.number}
{ type empty$
    { "Technical Report" }
    'type
  if$
  number empty$
    { "t" change.case$ }
    { number tie.or.space.connect }
  if$
}

FUNCTION {format.article.crossref}
{ "In"                          % this is for apalike
  " \cite{" * crossref * "}" *
}

FUNCTION {format.book.crossref}
{ volume empty$
    { "empty volume in " cite$ * "'s crossref of " * crossref * warning$
      "In "
    }
    { "Volume" volume tie.or.space.connect
      " of " *
    }
  if$
  "\cite{" * crossref * "}" *               % this is for apalike
}

FUNCTION {format.incoll.inproc.crossref}
{ "In"                          % this is for apalike
  " \cite{" * crossref * "}" *
}

FUNCTION {article}
{ output.bibitem
  format.authors "author" output.check
  author format.key output              % special for
  output.year.check                 % apalike
  new.block
  format.title "title" output.check
  new.block
  crossref missing$
    { journal emphasize "journal" output.check
      format.vol.num.pages output
    }
    { format.article.crossref output.nonnull
      format.pages output
    }
  if$
  new.block
  note output
  fin.entry
}

FUNCTION {book}
{ output.bibitem
  author empty$
    { format.editors "author and editor" output.check
      editor format.key output
    }
    { format.authors output.nonnull
      crossref missing$
    { "author and editor" editor either.or.check }
    'skip$
      if$
    }
  if$
  output.year.check             % special for apalike
  new.block
  format.btitle "title" output.check
  crossref missing$
    { format.bvolume output
      new.block
      format.number.series output
      new.sentence
      publisher "publisher" output.check
      address output
    }
    { new.block
      format.book.crossref output.nonnull
    }
  if$
  format.edition output
  new.block
  note output
  fin.entry
}

FUNCTION {booklet}
{ output.bibitem
  format.authors output
  author format.key output              % special for
  output.year.check                 % apalike
  new.block
  format.title "title" output.check
  new.block
  howpublished output
  address output
  new.block
  note output
  fin.entry
}

FUNCTION {inbook}
{ output.bibitem
  author empty$
    { format.editors "author and editor" output.check
      editor format.key output
    }
    { format.authors output.nonnull
      crossref missing$
    { "author and editor" editor either.or.check }
    'skip$
      if$
    }
  if$
  output.year.check             % special for apalike
  new.block
  format.btitle "title" output.check
  crossref missing$
    { format.bvolume output
      format.chapter.pages "chapter and pages" output.check
      new.block
      format.number.series output
      new.sentence
      publisher "publisher" output.check
      address output
    }
    { format.chapter.pages "chapter and pages" output.check
      new.block
      format.book.crossref output.nonnull
    }
  if$
  format.edition output
  new.block
  note output
  fin.entry
}

FUNCTION {incollection}
{ output.bibitem
  format.authors "author" output.check
  author format.key output              % special for
  output.year.check                 % apalike
  new.block
  format.title "title" output.check
  new.block
  crossref missing$
    { format.in.ed.booktitle "booktitle" output.check
      format.bvolume output
      format.number.series output
      format.chapter.pages output
      new.sentence
      publisher "publisher" output.check
      address output
      format.edition output
    }
    { format.incoll.inproc.crossref output.nonnull
      format.chapter.pages output
    }
  if$
  new.block
  note output
  fin.entry
}

FUNCTION {inproceedings}
{ output.bibitem
  format.authors "author" output.check
  author format.key output              % special for
  output.year.check                 % apalike
  new.block
  format.title "title" output.check
  new.block
  crossref missing$
    { format.in.ed.booktitle "booktitle" output.check
      format.bvolume output
      format.number.series output
      format.pages output
      address output                    % for apalike
      new.sentence                  % there's no year
      organization output               % here so things
      publisher output                  % are simpler
    }
    { format.incoll.inproc.crossref output.nonnull
      format.pages output
    }
  if$
  new.block
  note output
  fin.entry
}

FUNCTION {conference} { inproceedings }

FUNCTION {manual}
{ output.bibitem
  format.authors output
  author format.key output              % special for
  output.year.check                 % apalike
  new.block
  format.btitle "title" output.check
  organization address new.block.checkb
  organization output
  address output
  format.edition output
  new.block
  note output
  fin.entry
}

FUNCTION {mastersthesis}
{ output.bibitem
  format.authors "author" output.check
  author format.key output              % special for
  output.year.check                 % apalike
  new.block
  format.title "title" output.check
  new.block
  "Master's thesis" format.thesis.type output.nonnull
  school "school" output.check
  address output
  new.block
  note output
  fin.entry
}

FUNCTION {misc}
{ output.bibitem
  format.authors output
  author format.key output              % special for
  output.year.check                 % apalike
  new.block
  format.title output
  new.block
  howpublished output
  new.block
  note output
  fin.entry
}

FUNCTION {phdthesis}
{ output.bibitem
  format.authors "author" output.check
  author format.key output              % special for
  output.year.check                 % apalike
  new.block
  format.btitle "title" output.check
  new.block
  "PhD thesis" format.thesis.type output.nonnull
  school "school" output.check
  address output
  new.block
  note output
  fin.entry
}

FUNCTION {proceedings}
{ output.bibitem
  format.editors output
  editor format.key output              % special for
  output.year.check                 % apalike
  new.block
  format.btitle "title" output.check
  format.bvolume output
  format.number.series output
  address output                % for apalike
  new.sentence                  % we always output
  organization output               % a nonempty organization
  publisher output              % here
  new.block
  note output
  fin.entry
}

FUNCTION {techreport}
{ output.bibitem
  format.authors "author" output.check
  author format.key output              % special for
  output.year.check                 % apalike
  new.block
  format.title "title" output.check
  new.block
  format.tr.number output.nonnull
  institution "institution" output.check
  address output
  howpublished output
  new.block
  note output
  fin.entry
}

FUNCTION {unpublished}
{ output.bibitem
  format.authors "author" output.check
  author format.key output              % special for
  output.year.check                 % apalike
  new.block
  format.title "title" output.check
  new.block
  note "note" output.check
  fin.entry
}

FUNCTION {default.type} { misc }

MACRO {jan} {"January"}

MACRO {feb} {"February"}

MACRO {mar} {"March"}

MACRO {apr} {"April"}

MACRO {may} {"May"}

MACRO {jun} {"June"}

MACRO {jul} {"July"}

MACRO {aug} {"August"}

MACRO {sep} {"September"}

MACRO {oct} {"October"}

MACRO {nov} {"November"}

MACRO {dec} {"December"}

MACRO {acmcs} {"ACM Computing Surveys"}

MACRO {acta} {"Acta Informatica"}

MACRO {cacm} {"Communications of the ACM"}

MACRO {ibmjrd} {"IBM Journal of Research and Development"}

MACRO {ibmsj} {"IBM Systems Journal"}

MACRO {ieeese} {"IEEE Transactions on Software Engineering"}

MACRO {ieeetc} {"IEEE Transactions on Computers"}

MACRO {ieeetcad}
 {"IEEE Transactions on Computer-Aided Design of Integrated Circuits"}

MACRO {ipl} {"Information Processing Letters"}

MACRO {jacm} {"Journal of the ACM"}

MACRO {jcss} {"Journal of Computer and System Sciences"}

MACRO {scp} {"Science of Computer Programming"}

MACRO {sicomp} {"SIAM Journal on Computing"}

MACRO {tocs} {"ACM Transactions on Computer Systems"}

MACRO {tods} {"ACM Transactions on Database Systems"}

MACRO {tog} {"ACM Transactions on Graphics"}

MACRO {toms} {"ACM Transactions on Mathematical Software"}

MACRO {toois} {"ACM Transactions on Office Information Systems"}

MACRO {toplas} {"ACM Transactions on Programming Languages and Systems"}

MACRO {tcs} {"Theoretical Computer Science"}

READ

FUNCTION {sortify}
{ purify$
  "l" change.case$
}

INTEGERS { len }

FUNCTION {chop.word}
{ 's :=
  'len :=
  s #1 len substring$ =
    { s len #1 + global.max$ substring$ }
    's
  if$
}

%           There are three apalike cases: one person (Jones),
%           two (Jones and de~Bruijn), and more (Jones et~al.).
%           This function is much like format.crossref.editors.
%
FUNCTION {format.lab.names}
{ 's :=
  s #1 "{vv~}{ll}" format.name$
  s num.names$ duplicate$
  #2 >
    { pop$ " \emph{et~al.}" * }
    { #2 <
    'skip$
    { s #2 "{ff }{vv }{ll}{ jj}" format.name$ "others" =
        { " \emph{et~al.}" * }
        { " \& " * s #2 "{vv~}{ll}" format.name$ * }   % and
      if$
    }
      if$
    }
  if$
}

FUNCTION {author.key.label}
{ author empty$
    { key empty$
    { cite$ #1 #3 substring$ }
    'key                    % apalike uses the whole key
      if$
    }
    { author format.lab.names }
  if$
}

FUNCTION {author.editor.key.label}
{ author empty$
    { editor empty$
    { key empty$
        { cite$ #1 #3 substring$ }
        'key                % apalike uses the whole key
      if$
    }
    { editor format.lab.names }
      if$
    }
    { author format.lab.names }
  if$
}

FUNCTION {editor.key.label}
{ editor empty$
    { key empty$
    { cite$ #1 #3 substring$ }
    'key            % apalike uses the whole key, no organization
      if$
    }
    { editor format.lab.names }
  if$
}

FUNCTION {calc.label}      % this function came from ASTRON.BST (ARR)
{ type$ "book" =
  type$ "inbook" =
  or
    'author.editor.key.label
    { type$ "proceedings" =
        'editor.key.label                       % apalike ignores organization
        'author.key.label                       % for labeling and sorting
      if$
    }
  if$
  "\protect\astroncite{" swap$ * "}{"                   % these three lines are
  *                                                     % for apalike, which
  year field.or.null purify$ #-1 #4 substring$          % uses all four digits
  *                       % the mathing closing "}" comes in at the reverse.pass
  'label :=
}

FUNCTION {sort.format.names}
{ 's :=
  #1 'nameptr :=
  ""
  s num.names$ 'numnames :=
  numnames 'namesleft :=
    { namesleft #0 > }
    { nameptr #1 >
    { "   " * }
    'skip$
      if$                       % apalike uses initials
      s nameptr "{vv{ } }{ll{ }}{  f{ }}{  jj{ }}" format.name$ 't := % <= here
      nameptr numnames = t "others" = and    % and
    { "et al" * }
    { t sortify * }
      if$
      nameptr #1 + 'nameptr :=
      namesleft #1 - 'namesleft :=
    }
  while$
}

FUNCTION {sort.format.title}
{ 't :=
  "A " #2
    "An " #3
      "The " #4 t chop.word
    chop.word
  chop.word
  sortify
  #1 global.max$ substring$
}

FUNCTION {author.sort}
{ author empty$
    { key empty$
    { "to sort, need author or key in " cite$ * warning$
      ""
    }
    { key sortify }
      if$
    }
    { author sort.format.names }
  if$
}

FUNCTION {author.editor.sort}
{ author empty$
    { editor empty$
    { key empty$
        { "to sort, need author, editor, or key in " cite$ * warning$
          ""
        }
        { key sortify }
      if$
    }
    { editor sort.format.names }
      if$
    }
    { author sort.format.names }
  if$
}

FUNCTION {editor.sort}
{ editor empty$
    { key empty$
    { "to sort, need editor or key in " cite$ * warning$
      ""
    }
    { key sortify }
      if$
    }
    { editor sort.format.names }
  if$
}

%           apalike uses two sorting passes; the first one sets the
%           labels so that the `a's, `b's, etc. can be computed;
%           the second pass puts the references in "correct" order.
%           The presort function is for the first pass. It computes
%           label, sort.label, and title, and then concatenates.
FUNCTION {presort}
{ calc.label
  label sortify
  "    "
  *
  type$ "book" =
  type$ "inbook" =
  or
    'author.editor.sort
    { type$ "proceedings" =
    'editor.sort
    'author.sort
      if$
    }
  if$
  #1 entry.max$ substring$  % for
  'sort.label :=        % apalike
  sort.label            % style
  *
  "    "
  *
  title field.or.null
  sort.format.title
  *
  #1 entry.max$ substring$
  'sort.key$ :=
}

ITERATE {presort}

SORT        % by label, sort.label, title---for final label calculation

STRINGS { last.label next.extra }   % apalike labels are only for the text;

INTEGERS { last.extra.num }     % there are none in the bibliography

FUNCTION {initialize.extra.label.stuff} % and hence there is no `longest.label'
{ #0 int.to.chr$ 'last.label :=
  "" 'next.extra :=
  #0 'last.extra.num :=
}

FUNCTION {forward.pass}
{ last.label label =
    { last.extra.num #1 + 'last.extra.num :=
      last.extra.num int.to.chr$ 'extra.label :=
    }
    { "a" chr.to.int$ 'last.extra.num :=
      "" 'extra.label :=
      label 'last.label :=
    }
  if$
}

FUNCTION {reverse.pass}       % this function came from ASTRON.BST (ARR)
{ next.extra "b" =
    { "a" 'extra.label := }
    'skip$
  if$
  label extra.label * "}" * 'label :=
  extra.label 'next.extra :=
}

EXECUTE {initialize.extra.label.stuff}

ITERATE {forward.pass}

REVERSE {reverse.pass}

%               Now that the label is right we sort for real,
%               on sort.label then year then title.  This is
%               for the second sorting pass.
FUNCTION {bib.sort.order}
{ sort.label
  "    "
  *
  year field.or.null sortify
  *
  "    "
  *
  title field.or.null
  sort.format.title
  *
  #1 entry.max$ substring$
  'sort.key$ :=
}

ITERATE {bib.sort.order}

SORT        % by sort.label, year, title---giving final bibliography order

FUNCTION {begin.bib}
{ preamble$ empty$              % no \etalchar in apalike
    'skip$
    { preamble$ write$ newline$ }
  if$
  "\begin{thebibliography}{}" write$ newline$       % no labels in apalike
}

EXECUTE {begin.bib}

EXECUTE {init.state.consts}

ITERATE {call.type$}

FUNCTION {end.bib}
{ newline$
  "\end{thebibliography}" write$ newline$
}

EXECUTE {end.bib}

The MWE

\documentclass{article}
\begin{document}
\bibliographystyle{mybst}
\nocite{*}
\bibliography{mybib}
\end{document}

My .bib is

@article{AbbasiI2018, 
title={A Review of Vehicle to Vehicle Communication Protocols for VANETs in the Urban Environment}, 
volume={10}, 
ISSN={1999-5903}, 
howpublished ={\url{http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/fi10020014}},
DOI={10.3390/fi10020014}, 
number={2}, 
journal={Future Internet}, publisher={MDPI AG}, 
author={Abbasi, Irshad and Shahid-Khan, Adnan}, 
year={2018}, 
month={Jan}, 
pages={14}
}

The output from this is

For more than two authors, the .bst works well, but it fails to add a comma for two authors.

1 Answer 1

0

This simplest is to just change line 178 in your .bst file to

    { numnames #1 >

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