Latex fonts are famous (or infamous) for it tendency to use Ligatures like those in "ff","fl","fi". I was specting that from "f'i" but a minimal space appear. I don't bother too much but I wonder:

  1. Can I force any ligature character in any font? "ff","fl","fi"
  2. If the answer is positive, can I add an ascent? Of course I'm thinking in "f'i" but can I do some like "'ff" / "f"l" etc. ?
  3. Can I add a ligature to "fa"?

Edit: Some comments blame to the font designer for don't having this lingature I'm asking. I want to put two simpler question:

  1. Once someone answer, please, question (1): then, can I use this character as a single character and ascent it in any raw form?

  2. Let's say I have any character and an ascent ($\hat$ or a simpler ascent). Can I move the position of this ascent refering it to the position of the ascented character?

  • 5
    Professionally designed fonts often have carefully drawn ligatures with accented characters (see, for example, Louize at 205.tf/Designer/4/matthieu-cortat). You may be able to fake ligatures in some cases, but the results are often regrettable: TeX wasn’t meant to make font designers superfluous.
    – Thérèse
    Dec 13, 2021 at 19:46
  • 2
    you can't force a ligature, the font designer has to draw the character, it's like asking to force that a font has a π, if the font hasn't got the glyph, TeX can't access it, you need to choose a font that has them Dec 13, 2021 at 20:25
  • 1
    How should a ligature involving f and í look like?
    – egreg
    Dec 13, 2021 at 20:42
  • 1
    I asked on Graphic Design SE about the existence and use of 'fi' ligatures where the 'i' has an accent. In the end, I used fontforge to build a glyph out of parts of the usual 'fi' ligature, the (non-ligature) 'f', and the accented 'i', with a bit of tweaking (lowering the accent a little, shortening the arch of the 'f' a little, so that the 'f' and the accent are not too close).
    – Senex
    Dec 14, 2021 at 8:10
  • 1
    Classic Linotype faces from the metal typesetting era, for technical reasons, did not have kerning characters (i.e., no character could reach into the space of the previous or preceding character). While this doesn't always look great, it turns out that this makes setting words like für or Sofía work out rather nicely. Although these faces often include f-ligatures, I would be inclined to not use them as they can make words like fifty look rather odd with the first f reaching over the i while the second is demurely avoiding the t which follows.
    – Don Hosek
    Dec 17, 2021 at 1:16


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