I must admit that I am new to latex and currently I am working on a research paper as for our UG project. I need the following diagram: enter image description here

(I hope my handwriting is clear!) I searched for few ways to produce the same in latex on the internet and found some packages like tikz, tikz-cd etc. But having no experience of using these before I really couldn't understand the respective codes provided there as examples and consequently I haven't been able to produce the diagram, above. So please provide me with a user-friendly code and if possible please explain the commands a little bit so that next time I need a similar diagram I can code it on my own. Thanks in advance.


2 Answers 2


Here is a possible solution, partly with trial and error. However, I think it would be easier with the \psDefBoxNodes command from pst-node.

\usepackage{tikz-cd, amsmath, amssymb}
\newcommand{\FS}{\text{fuzzy soft }}


\tikzcdset{column sep/normal=2.5em}
\begin{tikzcd}[column sep=normal, row sep=large]
\hskip -2em\FS\text{regular open}\arrow[r] & \FS\delta\text{-open}\arrow[r] & \FS\text{open }\arrow[dr, start anchor={[xshift=1.5em]}, end anchor={[xshift=-2.5em]}]\\
& & & \FS\text{pre-open} \\
& & \FS\nu\text{-open}\arrow[uu, leftrightarrow, "/"marking]\arrow[ur, start anchor={[xshift=1.8em]}, end anchor={[xshift=-2.4em]}]


enter image description here

  • Thank you sir for taking time to write this answer. Sorry to say but to be honest I haven't completely understood the whole code and it's due to my lack of knowledge only. At present I don't have much time left till the last date of submission of my project work so I will go with @Zarko sir's code. But surely after I submit my project I would learn latex taking some course so that I get to know about such kind of packages that you have used and various other necessary things. But there are few things in your code which I did understand and which have certainly increased my knowledge. Sorry.... Jan 1, 2022 at 20:38
  • @Usual_Learner; You don't have to be sorry. If you want to understand better this code, you might take look at the tikz-cd documentation, which uses uses a system of key=value, and has many examples that make clearer how it works.
    – Bernard
    Jan 1, 2022 at 20:45
  • Sure sir I will take a look into it. For the time being would please tell me what option I may use in "\ar[___ , "/" marking]" so that it produces a two sided arrow just like the one in your diagram. I am trying to code in a similar fashion to that of the one shown by Zarko sir. I have understood in "\ar[ ]" r means right, 1 means left, d means downward and u means upward but the combination of d & u i.e., "du" doesn't give a two sided (vertical) arrow rather it results in an error. So what kind of combination or which command may I use to get my job done? Jan 1, 2022 at 21:12
  • @Usual_Learner: the two-sided arrow is obtained with the option [leftrightarrow]. You can see §1.3, Changing arrow tips, pp.3-4 in the documentation.
    – Bernard
    Jan 1, 2022 at 21:56

As I mentioned in comment, it seems that use of the tikz-cd package is promising way to go. As starting point can serve the following example:


\text{text} \ar[r] 
    & \text{text} \ar[r]  
        & \text{text} \ar[dr]  
                      \ar[dd, <->, "/" marking]  &               \\
    &   &                                   & \text{text}   \\
    &   & \text{text} \ar[ur]                      &


enter image description here

Inserting a real text I left to you, of course.


  • [margin=3.141592] is size (in pt) of margin around image. You can change it to any other size, for example margin=5mm or \margin=1ex etc.
  • I remove spurious code line \def\Z{\mathbb{Z}} was used in some other example, which serve me as starting point to write code for answer on your question
  • vertical lines now has arrows had on the both side (I add <-> to options of vertical line. It is now \ar[dd, <->, "/" marking]
  • Happy new year and thank you sir for taking time to write this answer. I have almost understood the code that you have provided but I have two queries: First, why did you add the key value "margin=3.14159"? (I mean what's the effect of it?) Second, you defined "\def\Z{\mathbb{Z}}" but I am not seeing any use of it. Correct me if I am wrong. One more thing that I'd like to mention is that I need a two sided arrow between the third text in the first row and the only text in the third row. But it seems that the command "\ar[dd, "/" marking]" don't produce so. I have tried to use "du" instead.... Jan 1, 2022 at 20:21
  • (contd.).... thinking it would mean downward and upward arrow but it gives an error. So sir will you please look into it? Actually sir I haven't learned latex from any course, whatever I have learned by inspecting people's answers on MSE and on Quora only helps me with writing various mathematical objects only and I have mostly practiced latex on MSE and on Quora only where I don't need to include packages and don't have to deal with such kind of things. This is my first time when I need such a diagram for my UG project and that is why I am asking such lame questions so please bear with me. Jan 1, 2022 at 20:31
  • @Usual_Learner, see edited answer.
    – Zarko
    Jan 1, 2022 at 22:32

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